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Eur J Pediatr ; 181(10): 3577-3593, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982151


COVID-19 can present with a range of skin manifestations, some of which specific of the pediatric age. The aim of this systematic literature review was to determine the type, prevalence, time of onset, and evolution of cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19 in newborns, children, and adolescents, after excluding multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). PubMed, Tripdatabase, ClinicalTrials, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using an ad hoc string for case reports/series and observational studies, published between December 2019 and February 2022. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE and CARE tools. Seventy-three (49 case reports/series and 24 studies) out of 26,545 identified articles were included in the analysis. Dermatological lesions were highly heterogeneous for clinical presentation, time of onset, and association with other COVID-19 manifestations. Overall, they mainly affected the acral portions, and typically presented a favorable outcome. Pseudo-chilblains were the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Mucocutaneous manifestations could be the only/predominant and early manifestation of COVID-19 that could precede other more severe manifestations by days or weeks. Therefore, physicians of all disciplines should be familiar with them. WHAT IS KNOWN: • A variety of cutaneous manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. • Urticaria, maculopapular, or vesicular rashes can occur at any age, while chilblains and erythema multiforme are more common in children and young patients. WHAT IS NEW: • Skin lesions related to SARS-CoV-2 infection often show a peculiar acral distribution. • Mucocutaneous lesions of various type may be the only/predominant manifestation of COVID-19; they could present in paucisymptomatic and severely ill patients and occur at different stages of the disease.

COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
JAAD Int ; 5: 11-18, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336630


BACKGROUND: The cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 may be useful disease markers and prognostic indicators. Recently, postinfectious telogen effluvium and trichodynia have also been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of trichodynia and telogen effluvium in patients with COVID-19 and describe their characteristics in relation to the other signs and symptoms of the disease. METHODS: Patients with a history of COVID-19 presenting to the clinics of a group of hair experts because of telogen effluvium and/or scalp symptoms were questioned about their hair signs and symptoms in relation to the severity of COVID-19 and associated symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 128 patients were collected. Telogen effluvium was observed in 66.3% of the patients and trichodynia in 58.4%. Trichodynia was associated with telogen effluvium in 42.4% of the cases and anosmia and ageusia in 66.1% and 44.1% of the cases, respectively. In majority (62.5%) of the patients, the hair signs and symptoms started within the first month after COVID-19 diagnosis, and in 47.8% of the patients, these started after 12 weeks or more. LIMITATIONS: The recruitment of patients in specialized hair clinics, lack of a control group, and lack of recording of patient comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The severity of postviral telogen effluvium observed in patients with a history of COVID-19 infection may be influenced by COVID-19 severity. We identified early-onset (<4 weeks) and late-onset (>12 weeks) telogen effluvium.

Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14528, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917742


Given the current lack of a therapeutic vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), preventive measures including mask wearing are crucial in slowing the transmission of cases. However, prolonged wearing of protective respirators, medical and fabric masks can easily generate excessive sweating, moisture and friction. Closed and warm environments heighten the skin's permeability and sensitivity to physical or chemical irritants, leading to chronic cumulative irritant contact dermatitis or, rarely, even allergic contact dermatitis. Although not representing a life-threatening condition, contact dermatitis can have a significant impact on emergency management, as it is potentially able to reduce work performance and create emotional discomfort due to the involvement of evident body areas. To minimize the skin breakdown, adherence to standards on wearing protective and safe equipments and avoidance of overprotection should be performed. At the same time, some measures of skin care are recommended. Here, we offer some tips on how to prevent and manage contact dermatitis due to masks not only in health care workers, but also in the general population during this COVID-19 outbreak.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Contact/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/prevention & control , Facial Dermatoses/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Masks/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Skin Care , Administration, Cutaneous , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Allergic Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome