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1.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; : 1-10, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute viral infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are characterized by the dysregulation of iron metabolism, resulting in high serum ferritin and low iron levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the prospective impact of iron metabolism dysregulation, as expressed by serum Ferritin-to-Iron Ratio (FIR), on the in-hospital prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Serum levels of ferritin and iron, as well as other iron metabolism markers and recognized prognostic indicators of COVID-19 severity, were measured in 362 patients consecutively hospitalized for COVID-19. The prospective relationship between FIR and the risk of the composite outcome of intensive care unit (ICU) admission/in-hospital death was analyzed. RESULTS: In the population examined (mean age 74 ± 15 years, males 55%), the rates of radiographic signs of pneumonia, respiratory distress, and the need for noninvasive ventilation were higher in patients with high FIR (≥29.2, the 75th percentile) than in those with low FIR (<29.2, the 75th percentile) (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). High FIR was associated with a 1.7-fold (HR 1.709, 95% CI 1.017-2.871, p = 0.043) higher risk of ICU admission/in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing FIR values significantly and independently predicts worse in-hospital prognosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2)-related pneumonia is associated with venous and arterial thrombosis . Aim of the study was to find-out a new score for predicting thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included a cohort of 674 patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, not requiring intensive care units, and followed-up during the hospitalization until discharge. Routinary analyses performed at in-hospital admission included also serum albumin and D-dimer while arterial and venous thromboses were the end-points of the study. RESULTS: During the follow-up thrombotic events 110 were registered; patients with thrombotic events were older and had lower albumin and higher D-dimer, compared to thrombotic event-free ones. On multivariable logistic regression with step by stepwise procedure age, serum albumin, D-dimer, were independently associated with thrombotic events. The linear combination of age, D-dimer, albumin allowed to build-up the ADA score, whose AUC was 0.752 (95% CI, 0.708-0.795). ADA score was internally validated by bootstrap sampling procedure giving an AUC of 0.752 (95% CI: 0.708 - 0.794). CONCLUSIONS: Combination of age, D-dimer, albumin in the ADA score allows identifying SARS-CoV-2 patients at higher risk of thrombotic events.

3.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 257-266, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different rate, typology, and impact of thrombosis on survival. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, 1,138 patients, hospitalized for CAP (n = 559) or COVID-19 (n = 579) from seven clinical centers in Italy, were included in the study. Consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with confirmed COVID-19-related pneumonia, with or without mechanical ventilation, hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, were enrolled. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Patients were followed-up until discharge or in-hospital death, registering the occurrence of thrombotic events including ischemic/embolic events. RESULTS: During the in-hospital stay, 11.4% of CAP and 15.5% of COVID-19 patients experienced thrombotic events (p = 0.046). In CAP patients all the events were arterial thromboses, while in COVID-19 patients 8.3% were venous and 7.2% arterial thromboses.During the in-hospital follow-up, 3% of CAP patients and 17% of COVID-19 patients died (p < 0.001). The highest mortality rate was found among COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (47.6 vs. 13.4% in thrombotic-event-free patients; p < 0.001). In CAP, 13.8% of patients experiencing thrombotic events died versus 1.8% of thrombotic event-free ones (p < 0.001). A multivariable Cox-regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CAP, COVID-19 is characterized by a higher burden of thrombotic events, different thrombosis typology and higher risk of thrombosis-related in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial injury can be induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and seems to exert a crucial pathogenic role in its most severe clinical manifestations. We aimed to investigate the association between brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (bFMD), a potential clinical and non-invasive measure of endothelial function, and in-hospital prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was assessed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients within 48 h of hospital admission. The association between bFMD and either intensive care unit (ICU) admission or in-hospital death was explored using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Four hundred and eight patients were enrolled. Significantly lower bFMD values emerged in COVID-19 patients with either radiographic signs of pneumonia, respiratory distress, or the need for non-invasive ventilation compared with patients without these signs (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Forty-two (10%) patients were admitted to the ICU, 76 (19%) patients died, and 118 (29%) patients met the composite endpoint of ICU admission/in-hospital death. At unadjusted Cox regression analysis showed that low bFMD (<4.4%, the median value) was associated with a higher risk for the composite endpoint of ICU admission/in-hospital death compared with high bFMD (≥4.4%, the median value) (HR 1.675, 95% CI 1.155-2.428, p = 0.007). Multi-adjusted Cox regression analyses showed that low bFMD was independently associated with a 1.519- to 1.658-fold increased risk for the composite endpoint of ICU admission/in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Low bFMD predicts an unfavorable in-hospital prognosis in COVID-19 patients. The measurement of bFMD may be clinically useful in the prognostic stratification of COVID-19 patients upon hospital admission.

5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Mortality/trends , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
6.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although hypovitaminosis D appears to be highly prevalent in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its impact on their prognosis remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vit-D) level was measured in 200 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The association between Vit-D and the composite endpoint of intensive care unit (ICU) admission/in-hospital death was explored using univariable and multivariable analyses. Also, serum Vit-D level in patients with COVID-19 was compared with that in age- and sex-balanced COVID-19-negative controls (i.e., 50 inpatients with sepsis). RESULTS: Serum Vit-D level was comparable between patients with COVID-19 and COVID-19-negative inpatients with sepsis (P = 0.397). No significant differences were found in serum Vit-D level according to COVID-19 severity at the time of hospital admission (P = 0.299). Incidence rates of the composite endpoint of ICU admission/in-hospital death did not differ significantly between patients with either Vit-D deficiency (i.e., Vit-D <20 ng/mL) or severe Vit-D deficiency (i.e., Vit-D <12 ng/mL) and those without (31% vs 35% with P = 0.649, and 34% vs 30% with P = 0.593, respectively). Vit-D level and status (i.e., Vit-D deficiency and severe Vit-D deficiency) were not prospectively associated with the risk of the composite endpoint of ICU admission/in-hospital death (P > 0.05 for all Cox regression models). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the potential usefulness of Vit-D measurement to guide appropriate supplementation, Vit-D does not appear to provide helpful information for the stratification of in-hospital prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
9.
Heliyon ; 6(10): e05304, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Variable sex-disaggregated data on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence proportion (IP) have been reported in different datasets and studies. Factors explaining the inconsistent distribution of COVID-19 among sexes are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse time-related variation of sex-disaggregated COVID-19 IP in Italy since March 9th to May 11th 2020, and to test its association with the frequency of swab testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). STUDY DESIGN: Sex-disaggregated data on COVID-19 cases were collected from Italian publicly accessible databases along with undisaggregated data on the number of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 tests. Crude and adjusted associations between the frequency of RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing and male-to-female (M/F) ratio of COVID-19 IP were performed. RESULTS: COVID-19 IP increased progressively in both sexes. Sex prevalence of COVID-19 IP reversed over time, with the M/F ratio of COVID-19 IP having passed from 1,73 to 0,91. The mean number of daily swabs for RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 test increased progressively until reaching a plateau in the last three weeks of the study period. The M/F ratio of COVID-19 IP inversely correlated with the number of daily swabs for RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 test (r = -0,87, p < 0.001), even after adjusting for the median age of COVID-19 cases (ß = -0,66, p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONS: Time-related changes of sex distribution of COVID-19 IP in Italy are strongly influenced by the number of swabs testing for SARS-CoV-2. Whether gender-related disparities in the access to the diagnosis of COVID-19 may explain such a result need to be explored.

10.
Angiology ; 72(2): 122-130, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736279

ABSTRACT

With the global expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the declaration of its outbreak as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization, there is an urgent need for vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat COVID-19. The responsible pathogen for the disease is the newly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 2 belonging to the same family of viruses SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus that originally are zoonotic and have been associated with severe illness during the outbreaks in 2003 and 2012, respectively. The virulence of coronavirus strains is mainly associated with variations in surface proteins mediating cellular entry of the virus, which can help in finding effective therapeutic targets. In this review, we seek evidence showing the role of coronavirus spike protein (S-protein) and its potential cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), during infection of coronaviruses, including the newly SARS-CoV-2 and its similar strain SARS-CoV. This review also discusses the therapeutic effect of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system cascade, a target of ACE2, in patients having coronavirus with cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Arch Med Sci ; 16(5): 985-992, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732713

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Particulate matter exposure has been associated with the appearance and severity of several diseases, including viral infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths across Italian regions and provinces in March 2020 were linked to past exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter (namely, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Geographical distributions of COVID-19 cases and deaths (105,792 and 12,428, respectively, up to 31st March 2020), PM2.5 and PM10 exposure, and demographic characteristics were extracted from publicly accessible databases. Adjusted regression models were performed to test the association between particulate matter exposure in different Italian regions and provinces and COVID-19 incidence proportions and death rates. RESULTS: A heterogeneous distribution of COVID-19 cases/deaths and particulate matter exposure was observed in Italy, with the highest numbers in Northern Italy regions and provinces. Independent associations between regional PM2.5/PM10 exposure and COVID-19 incidence proportion and death rate were observed (COVID-19 incidence proportion: ß = 0.71, p = 0.003, ß = 0.61, p = 0.031, respectively; COVID-19 death rate: ß = 0.68, p = 0.004 and ß = 0.61, p = 0.029, respectively). Similarly, PM2.5/PM10 exposures were independently associated with COVID-19 incidence proportion (ß = 0.26, p = 0.024 and ß = 0.27, p = 0.006, respectively) at the provincial level. The number of days exceeding the provincial limit value of exposure to PM10 (50 µg/m3) was also independently associated with the COVID-19 incidence proportion (ß = 0.30, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 is associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths, suggesting that particulate matter pollution may play a role in the COVID-19 outbreak and explain the heterogeneous distribution of COVID-19 in Italian regions and provinces.

12.
Zeitschrift für Epileptologie ; 33(3):245-246, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689120

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic is causing a huge and dramatic impact on healthcare systems worldwide. During this emergency, fragile patients suffering from other comorbidities, especially patients susceptible to or affected by cardiovascular disease, are the ones most exposed to the poorer outcomes. Therefore, it is still mandatory to continue to strictly adhere to the rules of cardiovascular prevention. This document aims to provide all doctors with simple and clear recommendations in order to spread useful messages to the widest number of subjects in order to continue the battle against cardiovascular diseases even in times of pandemic.

13.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(5): 373-377, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689121

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic is causing a huge and dramatic impact on healthcare systems worldwide. During this emergency, fragile patients suffering from other comorbidities, especially patients susceptible to or affected by cardiovascular disease, are the ones most exposed to the poorer outcomes. Therefore, it is still mandatory to continue to strictly adhere to the rules of cardiovascular prevention. This document aims to provide all doctors with simple and clear recommendations in order to spread useful messages to the widest number of subjects in order to continue the battle against cardiovascular diseases even in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiology/standards , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Preventive Health Services/standards , Risk Reduction Behavior , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Drugs ; 80(14): 1383-1396, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669901

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 is responsible for the current pandemic that has led to more than 10 million confirmed cases of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) and over 500,000 deaths worldwide (4 July 2020). Virus-mediated injury to multiple organs, mainly the respiratory tract, activation of immune response with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and overactivation of the coagulation cascade and platelet aggregation leading to micro- and macrovascular thrombosis are the main pathological features of COVID-19. Empirical multidrug therapeutic approaches to treat COVID-19 are currently used with extremely uncertain outcomes, and many others are being tested in clinical trials. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. In addition, a significant ASA-mediated antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses, including different human coronaviruses, has been documented. The use of ASA in patients with different types of infections has been associated with reduced thrombo-inflammation and lower rates of clinical complications and in-hospital mortality. However, safety issues related both to the risk of bleeding and to that of developing rare but serious liver and brain damage mostly among children (i.e., Reye's syndrome) should be considered. Hence, whether ASA might be a safe and reasonable therapeutic candidate to be tested in clinical trials involving adults with COVID-19 deserves further attention. In this review we provide a critical appraisal of current evidence on the anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiviral effects of ASA, from both a pre-clinical and a clinical perspective. In addition, the potential benefits and risks of use of ASA have been put in the context of the adult-restricted COVID-19 population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections , Inflammation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603676

ABSTRACT

Current data suggest that infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) seems to follow a more severe clinical course in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, and overweight/obesity. It appears that lipid-lowering pharmacological interventions, in particular statins, might reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications caused by COVID-19 and might potentially have an additional antiviral activity. It has been shown that high cholesterol levels are associated with more lipid rafts, subdomains of the plasma membrane that can harbour angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. Evidence of the importance of cholesterol for viral entry into host cells could suggest a role for cholesterol-lowering therapies in reducing viral infectivity. In addition to their lipid-lowering and plaque-stabilisation effects, statins possess pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antithrombotic activities. Lower rates of mortality and intubation have been reported in studies investigating statin therapy in influenza infection, and statin therapy was shown to increase viral clearance from the blood during chronic hepatitis C infection. Statins may also serve as potential SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors, thereby contributing to the control of viral infection. In this review, we elaborate on the role of cholesterol level in the process of the coronavirus infection and provide a critical appraisal on the potential of statins in reducing the severity, duration, and complications of COVID-19.

16.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(2): 139-142, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593682

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic associated with a high risk of mortality. Human serum albumin (HSA) is an acute phase reactant with antioxidant property; however, its behavior and impact on survival in COVID-19 patients have never been studied so far. Among 319 COVID-19 patients followed up for a median of 19 days, 64 died. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had more prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, elevated levels of D-dimer, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and troponins, and lower values of albumin. At the Cox regression analysis, albumin (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.63, p < 0.001) and age (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.001) were independently associated with mortality, irrespective of adjustment for gender, ICU admission, heart failure, COPD, and hs-CRP levels. Our observation leads to the hypothesis that HSA analysis may be used to identify patients at higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients.

17.
Arch Med Sci ; 16(3): 490-496, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-255735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: No proven drug and no immunisation are yet available for COVID-19 disease. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), a key coronavirus enzyme, which is a potential drug target, has been successfully crystallised. There is evidence suggesting that statins exert anti-viral activity and may block the infectivity of enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to assess whether statins are potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Molecular docking was performed using AutoDock/Vina, a computational docking program. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was docked with all statins, while antiviral and antiretroviral drugs - favipiravir, nelfinavir, and lopinavir - were used as standards for comparison. RESULTS: The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand favipiravir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, simvastatin, rosuvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, and atorvastatin were -6.8, -5.8, -7.9, -7.9, -7.0, -7.7, -6.6, -8.2, -7.4, -7.7, and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. The number of hydrogen bonds between statins and amino acid residues of Mpro were 7, 4, and 3 for rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and atorvastatin, respectively, while other statins had two hydrogen bonds. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate, based upon the binding energy of pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, lovastatin, and fluvastatin, that statins could be efficient SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. This is supported by the fact that the effects of some statins, especially pitavastatin, have a binding energy that is even greater than that of protease or polymerase inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential use as drugs for COVID-19.

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