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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 363, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation and show varying responses to recruitment manoeuvres. In patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19, two pulmonary subphenotypes that differed in recruitability were identified using latent class analysis (LCA) of imaging and clinical respiratory parameters. We aimed to evaluate if similar subphenotypes are present in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. METHODS: This is the retrospective analysis of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-related ARDS who underwent CT scans at positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O and after a recruitment manoeuvre at 20 cmH2O. LCA was applied to quantitative CT-derived parameters, clinical respiratory parameters, blood gas analysis and routine laboratory values before recruitment to identify subphenotypes. RESULTS: 99 patients were included. Using 12 variables, a two-class LCA model was identified as best fitting. Subphenotype 2 (recruitable) was characterized by a lower PaO2/FiO2, lower normally aerated lung volume and lower compliance as opposed to a higher non-aerated lung mass and higher mechanical power when compared to subphenotype 1 (non-recruitable). Patients with subphenotype 2 had more decrease in non-aerated lung mass in response to a standardized recruitment manoeuvre (p = 0.024) and were mechanically ventilated longer until successful extubation (adjusted SHR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.91, p = 0.026), while no difference in survival was found (p = 0.814). CONCLUSIONS: A recruitable and non-recruitable subphenotype were identified in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. These findings are in line with previous studies in non-COVID-19-related ARDS and suggest that a combination of imaging and clinical respiratory parameters could facilitate the identification of recruitable lungs before the manoeuvre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods
2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative radiological scores for the extent and severity of pulmonary infiltrates based on chest radiography (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) scan are increasingly used in critically ill invasively ventilated patients. This study aimed to determine and compare the prognostic capacity of the Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score and the chest CT Severity Score (CTSS) in a cohort of invasively ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. METHODS: Two-center retrospective observational study, including consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. Trained scorers calculated the RALE score of first available CXR and the CTSS of the first available CT scan. The primary outcome was ICU mortality; secondary outcomes were duration of ventilation in survivors, length of stay in ICU, and hospital-, 28-, and 90-day mortality. Prognostic accuracy for ICU death was expressed using odds ratios and Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (AUROC). RESULTS: A total of 82 patients were enrolled. The median RALE score (22 [15-37] vs. 26 [20-39]; p = 0.34) and the median CTSS (18 [16-21] vs. 21 [18-23]; p = 0.022) were both lower in ICU survivors compared to ICU non-survivors, although only the difference in CTSS reached statistical significance. While no association was observed between ICU mortality and RALE score (OR 1.35 [95%CI 0.64-2.84]; p = 0.417; AUC 0.50 [0.44-0.56], this was noticed with the CTSS (OR, 2.31 [1.22-4.38]; p = 0.010) although with poor prognostic capacity (AUC 0.64 [0.57-0.69]). The correlation between the RALE score and CTSS was weak (r2 = 0.075; p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Despite poor prognostic capacity, only CTSS was associated with ICU mortality in our cohort of COVID-19 patients.

3.
Crit Care Med ; 48(12): e1332-e1336, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clinical observation suggests that early acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may be "atypical" due to a discrepancy between a relatively unaffected static respiratory system compliance and a significant hypoxemia. This would imply an "atypical" response to the positive end-expiratory pressure. DESIGN: Single-center, unblinded, crossover study. SETTING: ICU of Bari Policlinico Academic Hospital (Italy), dedicated to care patients with confirmed diagnosis of novel coronavirus disease 2019. PATIENTS: Eight patients with early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 acute respiratory distress syndrome and static respiratory compliance higher than or equal to 50 mL/cm H2O. INTERVENTIONS: We compared a "lower" and a "higher" positive end-expiratory pressure approach, respectively, according to the intervention arms of the acute respiratory distress syndrome network and the positive end-expiratory pressure setting in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were ventilated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome network and, subsequently, with the ExPress protocol. After 1 hour of ventilation, for each protocol, we recorded arterial blood gas, respiratory mechanics, alveolar recruitment, and hemodynamic variables. Comparisons were performed with analysis of variance for repeated measures or Friedman test as appropriate. Positive end-expiratory pressure was increased from 9 ± 3.5 to 17.7 ± 1.7 cm H2O (p < 0.01). Alveolar recruitment was 450 ± 111 mL. Static respiratory system compliance decreased from 58.3 ± 7.6 mL/cm H2O to 47.4 ± 14.5 mL/cm H2O (p = 0.018) and the "stress index" increased from 0.97 ± 0.03 to 1.22 ± 0.07 (p < 0.001). The PaO2/FIO2 ratio increased from 131 ± 22 to 207 ± 41 (p < 0.001), and the PaCO2 increased from 45.9 ± 12.7 to 49.8 ± 13.2 mm Hg (p < 0.001). The cardiac index went from 3.6 ± 0.4 to 2.9 ± 0.6 L/min/m (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the "higher" positive end-expiratory pressure approach in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 acute respiratory distress syndrome and high compliance improves oxygenation and lung aeration but may result in alveolar hyperinflation and hemodynamic alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Neurol ; 13: 868538, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875420

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often develop acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that requires intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization and invasive mechanical ventilation, associated with a high mortality rate. In addition, many patients fail early weaning attempts, further increasing ICU length of stay and mortality. COVID-19 related ARDS can be complicated by neurological involvement with mechanisms of direct central nervous system (CNS) infection and with overlapping para-infective mechanisms of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We aimed to evaluate the possible involvement of the brainstem and PNS in patients with COVID-19 related ARDS and difficulty in weaning from mechanical ventilation. We evaluated electroencephalogram (EEG), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), electroneurography of the four limbs and the phrenic nerve in 10 patients with respiratory insufficiency due to SARS-CoV-2. All were admitted to intensive care unit and were facing prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. All ten patients showed a mild diffuse non-specific slowing of brain electrical activity on the EEG. Four patients had an acute motor axonal neuropathy with absent or reduced amplitude phrenic nerve CMAP while four patients showed impairment of the BAEPs. A patient with peripheral nerve impairment suggestive of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) underwent an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) cycle that led to an improvement in the weaning process and progressive motor improvement. The inclusion of a comprehensive neurological evaluation in COVID-19 patients in ICU facilitated the early identification and effective management of Nervous System involvement.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 772056, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650404

ABSTRACT

Background: The radiographic assessment for lung edema (RALE) score has an association with mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain whether the RALE scores at the start of invasive ventilation or changes thereof in the next days have prognostic capacities in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prognostic capacity of the RALE score for mortality and duration of invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Methods: An international multicenter observational study included consecutive patients from 6 ICUs. Trained observers scored the first available chest X-ray (CXR) obtained within 48 h after the start of invasive ventilation ("baseline CXR") and each CXRs thereafter up to day 14 ("follow-up CXR"). The primary endpoint was mortality at day 90. The secondary endpoint was the number of days free from the ventilator and alive at day 28 (VFD-28). Results: A total of 350 CXRs were scored in 139 patients with COVID-19 ARDS. The RALE score of the baseline CXR was high and was not different between survivors and non-survivors (33 [24-38] vs. 30 [25-38], P = 0.602). The RALE score of the baseline CXR had no association with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24 [95% CI 0.88-1.76]; P = 0.222; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.50 [0.40-0.60]). A change in the RALE score over the first 14 days of invasive ventilation, however, had an independent association with mortality (HR, 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.05]; P < 0.001). When the event of death was considered, there was no significant association between the RALE score of the baseline CXR and the probability of being liberated from the ventilator (HR 1.02 [95% CI 0.99-1.04]; P = 0.08). Conclusion: In this cohort of patients with COVID-19 ARDS, with high RALE scores of the baseline CXR, the RALE score of the baseline CXR had no prognostic capacity, but an increase in the RALE score in the next days had an association with higher mortality.

6.
Applied Sciences ; 11(24):11697, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1594752

ABSTRACT

The presence of B-line artefacts, the main artefact reflecting lung abnormalities in dengue patients, is often assessed using lung ultrasound (LUS) imaging. Inspired by human visual attention that enables us to process videos efficiently by paying attention to where and when it is required, we propose a spatiotemporal attention mechanism for B-line detection in LUS videos. The spatial attention allows the model to focus on the most task relevant parts of the image by learning a saliency map. The temporal attention generates an attention score for each attended frame to identify the most relevant frames from an input video. Our model not only identifies videos where B-lines show, but also localizes, within those videos, B-line related features both spatially and temporally, despite being trained in a weakly-supervised manner. We evaluate our approach on a LUS video dataset collected from severe dengue patients in a resource-limited hospital, assessing the B-line detection rate and the model’s ability to localize discriminative B-line regions spatially and B-line frames temporally. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach for classifying B-line videos with an F1 score of up to 83.2% and localizing the most salient B-line regions both spatially and temporally with a correlation coefficient of 0.67 and an IoU of 69.7%, respectively.

7.
Journal of critical care ; 68:31-37, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564742

ABSTRACT

Background The SpO2/FiO2 is a useful oxygenation parameter with prognostic capacity in patients with ARDS. We investigated the prognostic capacity of SpO2/FiO2 for mortality in patients with ARDS due to COVID–19. Methods This was a post-hoc analysis of a national multicenter cohort study in invasively ventilated patients with ARDS due to COVID–19. The primary endpoint was 28–day mortality. Results In 869 invasively ventilated patients, 28–day mortality was 30.1%. The SpO2/FiO2 on day 1 had no prognostic value. The SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 and day 3 had prognostic capacity for death, with the best cut-offs being 179 and 199, respectively. Both SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 (OR, 0.66 [95%–CI 0.46–0.96]) and on day 3 (OR, 0.70 [95%–CI 0.51–0.96]) were associated with 28–day mortality in a model corrected for age, pH, lactate levels and kidney dysfunction (AUROC 0.78 [0.76–0.79]). The measured PaO2/FiO2 and the PaO2/FiO2 calculated from SpO2/FiO2 were strongly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.79). Conclusions In this cohort of patients with ARDS due to COVID–19, the SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 and day 3 are independently associated with and have prognostic capacity for 28–day mortality. The SpO2/FiO2 is a useful metric for risk stratification in invasively ventilated COVID–19 patients.

8.
J Crit Care ; 68: 31-37, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SpO2/FiO2 is a useful oxygenation parameter with prognostic capacity in patients with ARDS. We investigated the prognostic capacity of SpO2/FiO2 for mortality in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a national multicenter cohort study in invasively ventilated patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: In 869 invasively ventilated patients, 28-day mortality was 30.1%. The SpO2/FiO2 on day 1 had no prognostic value. The SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 and day 3 had prognostic capacity for death, with the best cut-offs being 179 and 199, respectively. Both SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 (OR, 0.66 [95%-CI 0.46-0.96]) and on day 3 (OR, 0.70 [95%-CI 0.51-0.96]) were associated with 28-day mortality in a model corrected for age, pH, lactate levels and kidney dysfunction (AUROC 0.78 [0.76-0.79]). The measured PaO2/FiO2 and the PaO2/FiO2 calculated from SpO2/FiO2 were strongly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.79). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with ARDS due to COVID-19, the SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 and day 3 are independently associated with and have prognostic capacity for 28-day mortality. The SpO2/FiO2 is a useful metric for risk stratification in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oximetry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1490-1497, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478301

ABSTRACT

Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used to assess loss of aeration, which is associated with outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting to the emergency department. We hypothesized that LUS scores are associated with outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. This retrospective international multicenter study evaluated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with at least one LUS study within 5 days after invasive mechanical ventilation initiation. The global LUS score was calculated by summing the 12 regional scores (range 0-36). Pleural line abnormalities and subpleural consolidations were also scored. The outcomes were successful liberation from the ventilator and intensive care mortality within 28 days, analyzed with multistate, competing risk proportional hazard models. One hundred thirty-seven patients with COVID-19-related ARDS were included in our study. The global LUS score was associated with successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96; P = 0.0007) independently of the ARDS severity, but not with 28 days mortality (HR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.97-1.08; P = 0.36). Subpleural consolidation and pleural line abnormalities did not add to the prognostic value of the global LUS score. Examinations within 24 hours of intubation showed no prognostic value. To conclude, a lower global LUS score 24 hours after invasive ventilation initiation is associated with increased probability of liberation from the mechanical ventilator COVID-19 ARDS patients, independently of the ARDS severity.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Middle Aged
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254404, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304473

ABSTRACT

Is it possible to achieve a collaboration between Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and General Practitioners (GPs) in the management of chronic HIV infection? A cross sectional survey was conducted among People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) attending the outpatient services of four Italian Infectious Diseases Centers to understand to which extent patients trust their GPs and involve them in the management of their chronic condition. Information about level of communication with GPs, subjective perception of the disease, and presence of co-medications were collected and matched with socio-demographic data using χ2statistics. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. From December 2019 to February 2020, 672 patients completed the survey, 59% males and 56% >50 years. Overall, 508 patients (76%) had informed GPs about HIV-positivity. Communication of diagnosis was significantly associated with age >50years, lower education level, history of disease >10 years and residency in Northern Italy. The "Undetectable = Untrasmittable" (U = U) concept was investigated as an indirect measure of perceived stigma. 23% of subjects was unaware of its meaning. Despite undetectable status, 50% of PLWHIV found difficult to communicate their condition to GPs, especially married (52% vs 48% of unmarried, p = 0.003), well-educated patients (51% vs 48, p = 0.007), living in Southern vs Northern Italy (52% vs 46%, p< 0.001). More than 75% of the participants consulted the ID specialist for co-medications and DDIs management, often complaining a lack of communication of the former with GPs. Overall, a good level of communication between PLWHIV and GPs was outlined, even if a wider involvement of the latter in HIV care is desirable.


Subject(s)
General Practitioners , HIV Infections , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1676-1686, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128113

ABSTRACT

Non-intubated patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 could benefit from awake proning. Awake proning is an attractive intervention in settings with limited resources, as it comes with no additional costs. However, awake proning remains poorly used probably because of unfamiliarity and uncertainties regarding potential benefits and practical application. To summarize evidence for benefit and to develop a set of pragmatic recommendations for awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, focusing on settings where resources are limited, international healthcare professionals from high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with known expertise in awake proning were invited to contribute expert advice. A growing number of observational studies describe the effects of awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in whom hypoxemia is refractory to simple measures of supplementary oxygen. Awake proning improves oxygenation in most patients, usually within minutes, and reduces dyspnea and work of breathing. The effects are maintained for up to 1 hour after turning back to supine, and mostly disappear after 6-12 hours. In available studies, awake proning was not associated with a reduction in the rate of intubation for invasive ventilation. Awake proning comes with little complications if properly implemented and monitored. Pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications were formulated and adjusted for resource-limited settings. Awake proning, an adjunctive treatment for hypoxemia refractory to supplemental oxygen, seems safe in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. We provide pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications for the use of awake proning in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Health Personnel , Humans , Wakefulness
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(3_Suppl): 25-33, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013476

ABSTRACT

Infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies are key in preventing nosocomial transmission of COVID-19. Several commonly used IPC practices are resource-intensive and may be challenging to implement in resource-constrained settings. An international group of healthcare professionals from or with experience in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) searched the literature for relevant evidence. We report on a set of pragmatic recommendations for hospital-based IPC practices in resource-constrained settings of LMICs. For cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19, we suggest that patients be placed in a single isolation room, whenever possible. When single isolation rooms are unavailable or limited, we recommend cohorting patients with COVID-19 on dedicated wards or in dedicated hospitals. We also recommend that cases of suspected COVID-19 be cohorted separately from those with confirmed disease, whenever possible, to minimize the risk of patient-to-patient transmission in settings where confirmatory testing may be limited. We suggest that healthcare workers be designated to care exclusively for patients with COVID-19, whenever possible, as another approach to minimize nosocomial spread. This approach may also be beneficial in conserving limited supplies of reusable personal protective equipment (PPE). We recommend that visitors be restricted for patients with COVID-19. In settings where family members or visitors are necessary for caregiving, we recommend that the appropriate PPE be used by visitors. We also recommend that education regarding hand hygiene and donning/doffing procedures for PPE be provided. Last, we suggest that all visitors be screened for symptoms before visitation and that visitor logs be maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Developing Countries , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Personal Protective Equipment
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