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1.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between orbital wall fractures connecting to  paranasal sinuses (OWF-PNS) and SARS-CoV-2 ocular surface contamination (SARS-CoV-2-OSC) in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study enrolling two asymptomatic COVID-19 patient cohorts with vs. without OWF-PNS in the case-control ratio of 1:4. All subjects were treated in a German level 1 trauma center during a one-year interval. The main predictor variable was the presence of OWF-PNS (case/control); cases with preoperative conjunctival positivity of SARS-CoV-2 were excluded to rule out the possibility of viral dissemination via the lacrimal gland and/or the nasolacrimal system. The main outcome variable was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-OSC (yes/no). Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed with a statistically significant P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The samples comprised 11 cases and 44 controls (overall: 27.3% females; mean age, 52.7 ± 20.3 years [range, 19-85]). There was a significant association between OWF-PNS and SARS-CoV-2-OSC (P = 0.0001; odds ratio = 20.8; 95% confidence interval = 4.11-105.2; R-squared = 0.38; accuracy = 85.5%), regardless of orbital fracture location (orbital floor vs. medial wall versus both; P = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic COVID-19 patients with OWF-PNS are associated with a considerable and almost 21-fold increase in the risk of SARS-CoV-2-OSC, in comparison with those without facial fracture. This could suggest that OWF-PNS is the viral source, requiring particular attention during manipulation of ocular/orbital tissue to prevent viral transmission.

2.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 60(8): 1118-1124, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060469

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the association between 'asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic' severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (AS/MS-COVID) and surgical site infection (SSI) after repair of craniomaxillofacial injury (CMFI). Using a case-control study design with a match ratio of 1:4, we enrolled a cohort of AS/MS-COVID cases with immediately treated CMFI during a one-year period. The main predictor variable was SARS-CoV-2 infection (yes/no), and the outcome of interest was SSI (yes/no). The other variables were demographic, clinical, and operative. Appropriate statistics were computed, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study group comprised 257 cases (28.8% female; 13.2% aged ≥ 60 years; 10.5% with fractures; 39.7% with involvement of nasal/oral/orbital tissue [viral reservoir organs, VROs]; 81.3% with blunt trauma; 19.1% developed an SSI [vs 6.8% in the control group]) with a mean (SD) age of 39.8 (16.6) years (range 19-87). There was a significant relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and SSI events (p<0.0001; odds ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval 2.17 to 4.78). On subgroup analysis, SSIs significantly increased with age ≥ 60 years, presence and treatment of fracture, contact with VROs, and prolonged antibiotic use (PAU). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed a positive effect only from old age, contact with VROs, and PAU (relative risk = 1.56, 2.52, and 2.03, respectively; r = 0.49; p = 0.0001). There was a significant 2.8-fold increase in SSIs among AS/MS-COVID cases, especially in those aged ≥ 60 years, or those with injuries to VROs, or both, who therefore required PAU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology
3.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 12(5): 666-672, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983516

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown increase the risk of head, neck, and face (HNF) dog bite injuries in children. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, the investigators enrolled a sample of children presenting with HNF dog bite injuries during 22 weeks before and 22 weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic in a German level 1 trauma center. The predictor variables were COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. The outcome variables were grouped into demographic, anatomic, injury-related, and therapeutic. Appropriate statistics were computed, and statistical significance was set at P ≤ .05. Results: The sample included 36 subjects (19.4% girls; 97.2% Caucasians; 50% isolated periorbital injuries; 61.1% during the lockdown; 16.7% after the lockdown) with an average age of 8 ± 3.3 years. Compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, pediatric HNF dog bite injuries increased ca. 5.5- and 1.5-fold during and after the lockdown, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic was significantly associated with severe household injury from a pet dog, number of inpatients and treatments in the operating room, and prolonged hospitalization. Isolated periorbital injury was common during the COVID-19 pandemic (P = 0.04; relative risk [RR], 4.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 31.12), especially during the lockdown (P = 0.02; RR, 4.36; 95% CI, 0.72 to 26.6). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, especially during the lockdown, there is an increasing tendency of frequency and severity of domestic HNF dog injuries in children, and periorbital region is the most injury-prone.

4.
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 123(6): e631-e638, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914709

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: To estimate and identify predictors of craniomandibular disorders (CMDs) in severe COVID-19 survivors after prolonged intubation ≥ 1 week (SCOVIDS-PI). METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled two cohorts of SCOVIDS-PIs with vs. without CMD during a one-year period. The predictor variables were demographic, dental, anesthetic, and laboratory parameters. The main outcome was presence of CMD until six post-PI months (yes/no). Appropriate statistics were computed with α = 95%. RESULTS: The sample comprised 176 subjects aged 59.2 ± 17.2 years (range, 27-89; 11.9% with CMDs; 30.1% females). CMDs were significantly associated with (1) bilateral posterior tooth loss (P = 0; number needed to screen [NNS] = 1.6), (2) dentofacial skeletal class II/convex face (P = .01; NNS = 2.2), and (3) peak CRP during intensive care ≥ 40 mg/l (P = .01; NNS = 3.5). With combined predictors, NNS became 2 to 4.3. CONCLUSIONS: Three predictors of CMDs in SCOVIDS-PIs: bilateral molar loss, convex face, and CRP ≥ 40 mg/l, indicate CMD screening and/or referral to a CMD specialist, regardless of patients' age, gender, underlying CMDs, or previous dental checkups. Screening ∼2 to 4 "SCOVIDS-PIs with ≥ one predictor" will identify one CMD events/patients during the first six post-PI months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Craniomandibular Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Survivors
5.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 22(3): 101745, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821348

ABSTRACT

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Meethil AP, Saraswat S, Chaudhary PP, Dabdoub SM, Kumar PS. Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and other microorganisms in dental aerosols. J Dent Res 2021;100(8);817-23. doi: 10.1177/00,220,345,211,015,948. SOURCE OF FUNDING: The authors reported that no external funding sources directly supported this study. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Experimental research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 123(3): 287-291, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to measure and compare prolonged viral shedding (PVS) identified from external splints (ES) and intranasal packings (IP) for isolated nasal fracture (INF) repair in immediately cured asymptomatic vs. mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients (AS-COVID vs. MS-COVID). METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study and enroled a sample of post-AS-COVID and post-MS-COVID patients, whose INF were treated at a German level 1 trauma centre. The primary predictor variable was COVID severity presurgery (AS-COVD vs. MS-COVID). The main outcome variable was PVS detected in ES/IP. Other study variables were separated into demographic, clinical, and operative. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate statistics were computed, and statistical significance was set at P≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 15 INF patients (53.3% females; 46.7% post-AS-COVID) with a mean age of 42.2 ± 22.7 years (range, 18-85). 13.3% ES and 53.3% IP were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. However, only IP-contamination between the two cohorts reached statistical significance (P= 0.01; odds ratio, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 0.47; Pearson's r= 0.73; post hoc power = 87.4%). Multiple linear regression models refuted the associations between PVS and the other parameters (i.e. age, gender, time to treatment, length of hospital stay, lengths of ES/IP placement). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a relative low sample size, our findings suggest PVS via endonasal materials removed from cured COVID-19 patients, especially those healed from MS-COVID. This PVS may trigger re-infection and surgical site infections and/or transmission to other humans, and thereby, requires further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Splints , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
7.
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 123(1): 64-73, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: To execute a review answering the following question: "Among novel coronavirus disease (COVID19) patients, what are craniomaxillofacial (CMF) manifestations?" based on the RAMESES and the German Association of Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF)'s S2e guidelines. METHODS: We performed a realist synthesis and meta-narrative review extracting data in English, French, German and Thai from PubMed/Medline, Embase, Biomed Central, Cochrane Library, and Thai Journals Online, until 1 January 2021. The primary outcome variable was CMF manifestations grouped into 5 categories: (1) mouth and throat, (2) nose, paranasal sinus, and skull base (3) ocular/orbital and periorbital tissue, (4) ear, and (5) craniofacial skin. Appropriate statistics was computed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven original articles meeting the inclusion criteria were analysed; all were in English and indexed in PubMed/Medline. Hand searches of their references yielded a total of 101 articles for the review. Most data were in low level of evidence and focused on smell and taste disturbances and non-specific orofacial lesions. Iatrogenic complications may occur in this body region. Conservative measures remained effective and were usually enough for patient care. CONCLUSION: Because SARS-CoV-2 infection is new and becomes the stringent worldwide pandemic within a short time period, most of the data on CMF symptoms are of low level evidence. Apart from taste and smell dysfunctions, non-specific CMF lesions can be found and treated conservatively. Treatment complications are possible. Dentists and CMF surgeons are privileged to examine the orofacial region and work closely with colleagues in other specialities to combat this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
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