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1.
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines ; 7(1): 29, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: International travel is among the leading impactful factors of COVID-19 transmission; thus, adequate knowledge, good attitude and good preventive practices toward COVID-19 for international travelers are particularly essential for successful pandemic control. METHODS: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of international travelers (both Thai and non-Thai) and expatriates in Thailand. The data were collected at the Thai Travel Clinic, Bangkok, Thailand and via online platforms during May to October 2020. The independent T-test, Chi-square test and multiple regression analysis (MRA) were applied to determine factors influencing the KAP. RESULTS: Of 399 travelers, 46.6% were male, 72.1% had a Bachelor's degree or higher, and the mean age was 35.6 ± 9.6 years. Due to unexpected travel restrictions and lock down, 77.9% of participants were Thai and the respective major purpose of travel was business/work. Travel cancellation/postponement was reported at 73.9%. While sufficient knowledge (≥ 60% correct answers) was reported in 77.9% of participants, a low percentage of correct answers was found in the questions regarding disease transmission. The travelers reported a neutral attitude and an overall moderate concern regarding the COVID-19 situation. Adequate preventive practices were determined by the average practice score 3.54 ± 0.38 (0 = never and 4 = always). The MRA revealed that the factors influencing good practices were travelers who: i) enrolled from outside the hospital (online platform); ii) received pretravel advice at hospital; iii) were female; iv) participated before the declaration of the end of the outbreak; v) were aged 40-49 years, and vi) visited friends and relatives. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of travelers in this study had sufficient knowledge, a neutral attitude and adequate preventive practices toward COVID-19. The factors influencing good practices included pretravel advice, sex, age and the point in the timeline of the outbreak. In order to better control the COVID-19 pandemic situation, pretravel counselling and advice should be promoted as a means to improve knowledge, particularly in disease transmission, increase awareness and emphasize appropriate preventive measures toward COVID-19 among international travelers. Furthermore, preventive practices should be bolstered at all times regardless of the outbreak situation.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350170

ABSTRACT

Serological assays to detect antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might contribute to confirming the suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients not detected with molecular assays. Human antibodies that target the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-binding domain of the viral spike protein are a target for serodiagnosis and therapeutics. This study aimed to characterize the classes and subclasses of antibody responses to a recombinant receptor-binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients and investigated the reactivity of these antibodies in patients with other tropical infections and healthy individuals in Thailand. ELISAs for IgM, IgA, IgG and IgG subclasses based on RBD antigen were developed and tested with time series of 27 serum samples from 15 patients with COVID-19 and 60 samples from pre-COVID-19 outbreaks including acute dengue fever, murine typhus, influenza, leptospirosis and healthy individuals. Both RBD-specific IgA and IgG were detected in only 21% of the COVID-19 patients in the acute phase. The median IgA and IgG levels were significantly higher in the convalescent serum sample compared to the acute serum sample (P < 0.05). We observed the highest correlation between levels of IgG and IgA (rho = 0. 92). IgG1 and IgG3 were the major IgG subclasses detected in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Only acute IgG3 level was negatively associated with viral detection based on RT-PCR of ORF1ab gene (rho = -0.57). The median IgA and IgG levels in convalescence sera of COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than healthy individuals and convalescent sera of other febrile infectious patients. The analyses of antibody classes and subclasses provide insights into human immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 during natural infection and interpretation of antibody assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thailand , Young Adult
4.
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines ; 7(1): 13, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247605

ABSTRACT

The demand for COVID-19 testing has been on the rise after many countries have eased travel restrictions for essential travel to aid their economy. Thus, we discuss our lessons learnt of the crucial points that need to be considered by the clinicians when dealing with individuals seeking COVID-19 testing before international travel.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 83-85, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829378

ABSTRACT

We report a young Thai man from the Thai-Myanmar border suffering from 2 days of fever and myalgia without respiratory tract signs or symptoms. He reported no history of travel through an area with confirmed COVID-19 cases or contact with sick persons. After excluding malaria and dengue, which are common causative agents of acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) in Thailand, chest radiography was performed according to the patient triage protocol of our institute for AUFI during the COVID-19 outbreak. Chest radiography revealed findings compatible with pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal, throat, and sputum samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. The preadmission diagnosis of COVID-19 in this patient enabled appropriate management and isolation to prevent nosocomial transmission. Fever and nonspecific symptoms and laboratory results in early COVID-19 may be difficult to distinguish from tropical infectious diseases, especially when respiratory signs and symptoms are absent. This fact necessitates vigilant awareness in clinical investigation, management, and infection control, especially in tropical resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Myalgia/virology , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2
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