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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 792881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775691

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescents are at risk of developing a de novo mental health disorder or worsening of a pre-existing one. COVID-19 outpatients have been less well characterized than their hospitalized counterparts. The objectives of our study were to identify indicators for poor mental health following COVID-19 outpatient management and to identify high-risk individuals. Methods: We conducted a binational online survey study with adult non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescents (Austria/AT: n = 1,157, Italy/IT: n = 893). Primary endpoints were positive screening for depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-4) and self-perceived overall mental health (OMH) and quality of life (QoL) rated with 4 point Likert scales. Psychosocial stress was surveyed with a modified PHQ stress module. Associations of the mental health and QoL with socio-demographic, COVID-19 course, and recovery variables were assessed by multi-parameter Random Forest and Poisson modeling. Mental health risk subsets were defined by self-organizing maps (SOMs) and hierarchical clustering algorithms. The survey analyses are publicly available (https://im2-ibk.shinyapps.io/mental_health_dashboard/). Results: Depression and/or anxiety before infection was reported by 4.6% (IT)/6% (AT) of participants. At a median of 79 days (AT)/96 days (IT) post-COVID-19 onset, 12.4% (AT)/19.3% (IT) of subjects were screened positive for anxiety and 17.3% (AT)/23.2% (IT) for depression. Over one-fifth of the respondents rated their OMH (AT: 21.8%, IT: 24.1%) or QoL (AT: 20.3%, IT: 25.9%) as fair or poor. Psychosocial stress, physical performance loss, high numbers of acute and sub-acute COVID-19 complaints, and the presence of acute and sub-acute neurocognitive symptoms (impaired concentration, confusion, and forgetfulness) were the strongest correlates of deteriorating mental health and poor QoL. In clustering analysis, these variables defined subsets with a particularly high propensity of post-COVID-19 mental health impairment and decreased QoL. Pre-existing depression or anxiety (DA) was associated with an increased symptom burden during acute COVID-19 and recovery. Conclusion: Our study revealed a bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 symptoms and mental health. We put forward specific acute symptoms of the disease as "red flags" of mental health deterioration, which should prompt general practitioners to identify non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients who may benefit from early psychological and psychiatric intervention. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04661462].

2.
Radiology ; : 211670, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765163

ABSTRACT

Background The long-term pulmonary sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not well known. Purpose To characterize patterns and rates of improvement of chest CT abnormalities one year after COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter observational cohort study conducted from April 29 to August 12, 2020 to assess pulmonary abnormalities on chest CT at approximately 2, 3, 6 months, and 1 year after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Pulmonary findings were graded for each lung lobe using a qualitative CT severity score (CTSS), range 0 (normal) to 25 (all lobes involved). The association of demographic and clinical factors with CT abnormalities after 1 year was assessed with logistic regression. The rate of change of the CTSS at follow-up CT was investigated by Friedmann test. Results Out of 142 enrolled participants, 91 participants had a 1-year follow-up CT and were included in the analysis [mean age, 59 years ± 13 [standard deviation]; 35 women (38%)]. In 49/91 (54%) participants, CT abnormalities were observed: 31/91 (34%) participants showed subtle subpleural reticulation, ground-glass opacities or both and 18/91 (20%) participants revealed extensive ground-glass opacities, reticulations, bronchial dilation and/or microcystic changes. In multivariable analysis, age > 60 years (OR 5.8 [95% CI: 1.7 - 24]; p = .009) critical COVID-19 severity (OR 29 [95% CI: 4.8 - 280]; p < .001) and male gender (OR 8.9 [95% CI: 2.6 - 36]; p < .001) were associated with persistent CT abnormalities at 1 year. Reduction of CTSS was observed in participants in subsequent follow-up CTs (p < .001) and during the study period 49% (69/142) of participants had complete resolution of CT abnormalities. 31/49 (63%) participants with CT abnormalities did not show further improvement after 6 months. Conclusion Long-term CT abnormalities were common 1 year after COVID-19 pneumonia. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number (registration number NCT04416100). See also the editorial by Leung.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3677, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730313

ABSTRACT

The CovILD study is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study to systematically follow up patients after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We extensively evaluated 145 COVID-19 patients at 3 follow-up visits scheduled for 60, 100, and 180 days after initial confirmed diagnosis based on typical symptoms and a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We employed comprehensive pulmonary function and laboratory tests, including serum concentrations of IgG against the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, and compared the results to clinical data and chest computed tomography (CT). We found that at the 60 day follow-up, 131 of 145 (90.3%) participants displayed S-specific serum IgG levels above the cut-off threshold. Notably, the highly elevated IgG levels against S glycoprotein positively correlated with biomarkers of immune activation and negatively correlated with pulmonary function and the extent of pulmonary CT abnormalities. Based on the association between serum S glycoprotein-specific IgG and clinical outcome, we generated an S-specific IgG-based recovery score that, when applied in the early convalescent phase, accurately predicted delayed pulmonary recovery after COVID-19. Therefore, we propose that S-specific IgG levels serve as a useful immunological surrogate marker for identifying at-risk individuals with persistent pulmonary injury who may require intensive follow-up care after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Elife ; 112022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675184

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal procedures to prevent, identify, monitor, and treat long-term pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 are elusive. Here, we characterized the kinetics of respiratory and symptom recovery following COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, multicenter observational study in ambulatory and hospitalized COVID-19 patients recruited in early 2020 (n = 145). Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and lung function (LF) readouts, symptom prevalence, and clinical and laboratory parameters were collected during acute COVID-19 and at 60, 100, and 180 days follow-up visits. Recovery kinetics and risk factors were investigated by logistic regression. Classification of clinical features and participants was accomplished by unsupervised and semi-supervised multiparameter clustering and machine learning. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, 49% of participants reported persistent symptoms. The frequency of structural lung CT abnormalities ranged from 18% in the mild outpatient cases to 76% in the intensive care unit (ICU) convalescents. Prevalence of impaired LF ranged from 14% in the mild outpatient cases to 50% in the ICU survivors. Incomplete radiological lung recovery was associated with increased anti-S1/S2 antibody titer, IL-6, and CRP levels at the early follow-up. We demonstrated that the risk of perturbed pulmonary recovery could be robustly estimated at early follow-up by clustering and machine learning classifiers employing solely non-CT and non-LF parameters. Conclusions: The severity of acute COVID-19 and protracted systemic inflammation is strongly linked to persistent structural and functional lung abnormality. Automated screening of multiparameter health record data may assist in the prediction of incomplete pulmonary recovery and optimize COVID-19 follow-up management. Funding: The State of Tyrol (GZ 71934), Boehringer Ingelheim/Investigator initiated study (IIS 1199-0424). Clinical trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3348-3359, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess neurological manifestations and health-related quality of life (QoL) 3 months after COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study we systematically evaluated neurological signs and diseases by detailed neurological examination and a predefined test battery assessing smelling disorders (16-item Sniffin Sticks test), cognitive deficits (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), QoL (36-item Short Form), and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5) 3 months after disease onset. RESULTS: Of 135 consecutive COVID-19 patients, 31 (23%) required intensive care unit (ICU) care (severe), 72 (53%) were admitted to the regular ward (moderate), and 32 (24%) underwent outpatient care (mild) during acute disease. At the 3-month follow-up, 20 patients (15%) presented with one or more neurological syndromes that were not evident before COVID-19. These included polyneuro/myopathy (n = 17, 13%) with one patient presenting with Guillain-Barré syndrome, mild encephalopathy (n = 2, 2%), parkinsonism (n = 1, 1%), orthostatic hypotension (n = 1, 1%), and ischemic stroke (n = 1, 1%). Objective testing revealed hyposmia/anosmia in 57/127 (45%) patients at the 3-month follow-up. Self-reported hyposmia/anosmia was lower (17%) at 3 months, however, improved when compared to the acute disease phase (44%; p < 0.001). At follow-up, cognitive deficits were apparent in 23%, and QoL was impaired in 31%. Assessment of mental health revealed symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders in 11%, 25%, and 11%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite recovery from the acute infection, neurological symptoms were prevalent at the 3-month follow-up. Above all, smelling disorders were persistent in a large proportion of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296047

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 is associated with long-term pulmonary symptoms and may result in chronic pulmonary impairment. The optimal procedures to prevent, identify, monitor, and treat these pulmonary sequelae are elusive. Research question To characterize the kinetics of pulmonary recovery, risk factors and constellations of clinical features linked to persisting radiological lung findings after COVID-19. Study design and methods A longitudinal, prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study including COVID-19 patients (n = 108). Longitudinal pulmonary imaging and functional readouts, symptom prevalence, clinical and laboratory parameters were collected during acute COVID-19 and at 60-, 100- and 180-days follow-up visits. Recovery kinetics and risk factors were investigated by logistic regression. Classification of clinical features and study participants was accomplished by k-means clustering, the k-nearest neighbors (kNN), and naive Bayes algorithms. Results At the six-month follow-up, 51.9% of participants reported persistent symptoms with physical performance impairment (27.8%) and dyspnea (24.1%) being the most frequent. Structural lung abnormalities were still present in 45.4% of the collective, ranging from 12% in the outpatients to 78% in the subjects treated at the ICU during acute infection. The strongest risk factors of persisting lung findings were elevated interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) during recovery and hospitalization during acute COVID-19. Clustering analysis revealed association of the lung lesions with increased anti-S1/S2 antibody, IL6, CRP, and D-dimer levels at the early follow-up suggesting non-resolving inflammation as a mechanism of the perturbed recovery. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of risk class assignment and prediction of individual risk of delayed lung recovery employing clustering and machine learning algorithms. Interpretation Severity of acute infection, and systemic inflammation is strongly linked to persistent post-COVID-19 lung abnormality. Automated screening of multi-parameter health record data may assist the identification of patients at risk of delayed pulmonary recovery and optimize COVID-19 follow-up management. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID, defined as presence of COVID-19 symptoms 28 days or more after clinical onset, is an emerging challenge to healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to explore recovery phenotypes in non-hospitalized COVID-19 individuals. METHODS: A dual cohort, online survey study was conducted between September 2020 and July 2021 in the neighboring European regions Tyrol (TY, Austria, n = 1157) and South Tyrol (STY, Italy, n = 893). Data on demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms and recovery adult outpatients were collected. Phenotypes of acute COVID-19, post-acute sequelae and risk of protracted recovery were explored by semi-supervised clustering and multi-parameter LASSO modeling. RESULTS: Working age subjects (TY: 43 yrs (IQR: 31 - 53), STY: 45 yrs (IQR: 35 - 55)) and females (TY: 65.1%, STY: 68.3%) predominated the study cohorts. Nearly half of the participants (TY: 47.6%, STY: 49.3%) reported symptom persistence beyond 28 days. Two acute COVID-19 phenotypes were discerned: the non-specific infection phenotype and the multi-organ phenotype (MOP). Acute MOP symptoms encompassing multiple neurological, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints were linked to elevated risk of protracted recovery. The major subset of long COVID individuals (TY: 49.3%, STY: 55.6%) displayed no persistent hyposmia or hypogeusia but high counts of post-acute MOP symptoms and poor self-reported physical recovery. CONCLUSION: The results of our two-cohort analysis delineated phenotypic diversity of acute and post-acute COVID-19 manifestations in home-isolated patients which needs to be considered for predicting protracted convalescence and allocation of medical resources.

8.
Qual Life Res ; 31(5): 1401-1414, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess patient characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and its mental and physical subcategories 3 months after diagnosis with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective multicentre cohort study, HR-QoL was assessed in 90 patients using the SF-36 questionnaire (36-item Short Form Health Survey), which consists of 8 health domains that can be divided into a mental and physical health component. Mental health symptoms including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5) 3 months after COVID-19. Using descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analysis, we identified factors associated with impaired HR-QoL 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients were 55 years of age (IQR, 49-63; 39% women) and were classified as severe (23%), moderate (57%), or mild (20%) according to acute disease severity. HR-QoL was impaired in 28/90 patients (31%). Younger age [per year, adjOR (95%CI) 0.94 (0.88-1.00), p = 0.049], longer hospitalization [per day, adjOR (95%CI) 1.07 (1.01-1.13), p = 0.015], impaired sleep [adjOR (95%CI) 5.54 (1.2-25.61), p = 0.028], and anxiety [adjOR (95%CI) 15.67 (3.03-80.99), p = 0.001) were independently associated with impaired HR-QoL. Twenty-nine percent (n = 26) scored below the normal range on the mental health component of the SF-36 and independent associations emerged for anxiety, depression, and self-reported numbness. Impairments in the physical health component of the SF-36 were reported by 12 (13%) patients and linked to hypogeusia and fatigue. CONCLUSION: Every third patient reported a reduction in HR-QoL 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis and impairments were more prominent in mental than physical well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology
9.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267622

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Proteome/physiology , Age Factors , Blood Cell Count , Blood Gas Analysis , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 189-198, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increases the demand for postacute care in patients after a severe disease course. Various long-term sequelae are expected and rehabilitation medicine is challenged to support physical and cognitive recovery. AIM: We aimed to explore the dysfunctions and outcome of COVID-19 survivors after early postacute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: This study evaluated the postacute sequelae of patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed rehabilitative outcomes of a subgroup of patients included in the prospective observational multicenter CovILD study. RESULTS: A total of 23 subjects discharged after severe to critical COVID-19 infection underwent an individualized, multiprofessional rehabilitation. At the start of postacute rehabilitation, impairment of pulmonary function (87%), symptoms related to postintensive care syndrome, and neuropsychological dysfunction (85%) were frequently found, whereas cardiac function appeared to be largely unaffected. Of interest, multi-disciplinary rehabilitation resulted in a significant improvement in lung function, as reflected by an increase of forced vital capacity (P=0.007) and forced expiratory volume in one second (P=0.014), total lung capacity (P=0.003), and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P=0.002). Accordingly, physical performance status significantly improved as reflected by a mean increase of six-minute walking distance by 176 (SD±137) meters. Contrarily, a considerable proportion of patients still had limited diffusion capacity (83%) or neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy at the end of rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals discharged after a severe course of COVID-19 frequently present with persisting physical and cognitive dysfunctions after hospital discharge. Those patients significantly benefit from multi-disciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our data demonstrated the highly promising effects of early postacute rehabilitation in survivors of severe or critical COVID-19. This findings urge further prospective evaluations and may impact future treatment and rehabilitation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care/methods , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(8): 1453-1462, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and induce a specific antibody response. Serological assays detecting IgG against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein are useful to monitor the immune response after infection or vaccination. The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG) assay. METHODS: Sensitivity and specificity of the Siemens sCOVG test were evaluated on 178 patients with SARS-CoV-2-infection and 160 pre-pandemic samples in comparison with its predecessor test COV2G. Furthermore, correlation with virus neutralization titers was investigated on 134 samples of convalescent COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Specificity of the sCOVG test was 99.4% and sensitivity was 90.5% (COV2G assay 78.7%; p<0.0001). S1-RBD antibody levels showed a good correlation with virus neutralization titers (r=0.843; p<0.0001) and an overall qualitative agreement of 98.5%. Finally, median S1-RBD IgG levels increase with age and were significantly higher in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (median levels general ward: 25.7 U/mL; intensive care: 59.5 U/mL) than in outpatients (3.8 U/mL; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Performance characteristics of the sCOVG assay have been improved compared to the predecessor test COV2G. Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD IgG levels could be used as a surrogate for virus neutralization capacity. Further harmonization of antibody quantification might assist to monitor the humoral immune response after COVID-19 disease or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Subunits/immunology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(6): 1143-1154, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Serological tests detect antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the ongoing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Independent external clinical validation of performance characteristics is of paramount importance. METHODS: Four fully automated assays, Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2, Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Siemens SARS-CoV-2 total (COV2T) and SARS-CoV-2 IgG (COV2G) were evaluated using 350 pre-pandemic samples and 700 samples from 245 COVID-19 patients (158 hospitalized, 87 outpatients). RESULTS: All tests showed very high diagnostic specificity. Sensitivities in samples collected at least 14 days after disease onset were slightly lower than manufacturers' claims for Roche (93.0%), Abbott (90.8%), and Siemens COV2T (90.3%), and distinctly lower for Siemens COV2G (78.8%). Concordantly negative results were enriched for immunocompromised patients. ROC curve analyses suggest a lowering of the cut-off index for the Siemens COV2G assay. Finally, the combination of two anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays is feasible when considering borderline reactive results. CONCLUSIONS: Thorough on-site evaluation of commercially available serologic tests for detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 remains imperative for laboratories. The potentially impaired sensitivity of the Siemens COV2G necessitates a switch to the company's newly filed SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay for follow-up studies. A combination of tests could be considered in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
14.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 189-198, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increases the demand for postacute care in patients after a severe disease course. Various long-term sequelae are expected and rehabilitation medicine is challenged to support physical and cognitive recovery. AIM: We aimed to explore the dysfunctions and outcome of COVID-19 survivors after early postacute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: This study evaluated the postacute sequelae of patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed rehabilitative outcomes of a subgroup of patients included in the prospective observational multicenter CovILD study. RESULTS: A total of 23 subjects discharged after severe to critical COVID-19 infection underwent an individualized, multiprofessional rehabilitation. At the start of postacute rehabilitation, impairment of pulmonary function (87%), symptoms related to postintensive care syndrome, and neuropsychological dysfunction (85%) were frequently found, whereas cardiac function appeared to be largely unaffected. Of interest, multi-disciplinary rehabilitation resulted in a significant improvement in lung function, as reflected by an increase of forced vital capacity (P=0.007) and forced expiratory volume in one second (P=0.014), total lung capacity (P=0.003), and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P=0.002). Accordingly, physical performance status significantly improved as reflected by a mean increase of six-minute walking distance by 176 (SD±137) meters. Contrarily, a considerable proportion of patients still had limited diffusion capacity (83%) or neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy at the end of rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals discharged after a severe course of COVID-19 frequently present with persisting physical and cognitive dysfunctions after hospital discharge. Those patients significantly benefit from multi-disciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our data demonstrated the highly promising effects of early postacute rehabilitation in survivors of severe or critical COVID-19. This findings urge further prospective evaluations and may impact future treatment and rehabilitation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care/methods , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
16.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 276, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with hyperinflammation and hyperferritinemia. The latter is related to increased mortality in COVID-19. Still, it is not clear if iron dysmetabolism is mechanistically linked to COVID-19 pathobiology. METHODS: We herein present data from the ongoing prospective, multicentre, observational CovILD cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04416100), which systematically follows up patients after COVID-19. 109 participants were evaluated 60 days after onset of first COVID-19 symptoms including clinical examination, chest computed tomography and laboratory testing. RESULTS: We investigated subjects with mild to critical COVID-19, of which the majority received hospital treatment. 60 days after disease onset, 30% of subjects still presented with iron deficiency and 9% had anemia, mostly categorized as anemia of inflammation. Anemic patients had increased levels of inflammation markers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and survived a more severe course of COVID-19. Hyperferritinemia was still present in 38% of all individuals and was more frequent in subjects with preceding severe or critical COVID-19. Analysis of the mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a correlation of increased ferritin and cytokine mRNA expression in these patients. Finally, persisting hyperferritinemia was significantly associated with severe lung pathologies in computed tomography scans and a decreased performance status as compared to patients without hyperferritinemia. DISCUSSION: Alterations of iron homeostasis can persist for at least two months after the onset of COVID-19 and are closely associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and impaired physical performance. Determination of serum iron parameters may thus be a easy to access measure to monitor the resolution of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04416100.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Homeostasis , Iron/metabolism , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Anemia/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Nutrients ; 12(9):2775, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-762781

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health concern. Vitamin D (VITD) deficiency has been suggested to alter SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and the course of disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate associations of VITD status to disease presentation within the CovILD registry. This prospective, multicenter, observational study on long-term sequelae includes patients with COVID-19 after hospitalization or outpatients with persistent symptoms. Eight weeks after PCR confirmed diagnosis, a detailed questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory testing, including VITD status, were evaluated. Furthermore, available laboratory specimens close to hospital admission were used to retrospectively analyze 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at disease onset. A total of 109 patients were included in the analysis (60% males, 40% females), aged 58 ±14 years. Eight weeks after the onset of COVID-19, a high proportion of patients presented with impaired VITD metabolism and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. PTH concentrations were increased in patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, while VITD levels were not significantly different between disease severity groups. Low VITD levels at disease onset or at eight-week follow-up were not related to persistent symptom burden, lung function impairment, ongoing inflammation, or more severe CT abnormalities. VITD deficiency is frequent among COVID-19 patients but not associated with disease outcomes. However, individuals with severe disease display a disturbed parathyroid-vitamin-D axis within their recovery phase. The proposed significance of VITD supplementation in the clinical management of COVID-19 remains elusive.

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