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Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 57-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Endemic coronaviruses have been found in acute bronchiolitis, mainly as a coinfecting virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for respiratory illness in hospitalized children. The characteristics of patients with bronchiolitis have not been extensively described. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with bronchiolitis and SARS-CoV-2 infection enrolled in a prospective multicenter cohort of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve of 666 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who required hospital admission met the diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis (1.8%). Median age was 1.9 months (range: 0.4-10.1). Six cases had household contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case. Main complaints were cough (11 patients), rhinorrhea (10), difficulty breathing (8), and fever (8). Eleven cases were classified as mild or moderate and one as severe. Laboratory tests performed in seven patients did not evidence anemia, lymphopenia, or high C-reactive protein levels. Chest X-rays were performed in six children, and one case showed remarkable findings. Coinfection with metapneumovirus was detected in the patient with the most severe course; Bordetella pertussis was detected in another patient. Seven patients required oxygen therapy. Albuterol was administered in four patients. One patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Median length of admission was 4 days (range: 3-14). No patient died or showed any sequelae at discharge. Two patients developed recurrent bronchospasms. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection does not seem to be a main trigger of severe bronchiolitis, and children with this condition should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Bronchiolitis/complications , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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