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1.
Journal of Sleep Research ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1807201

ABSTRACT

Summary There has been increasing concern about the long-term impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as evidenced by anecdotal case reports of acute-onset parkinsonism and the polysomnographic feature of increased rapid eye movement sleep electromyographic activity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of dream-enactment behaviours, a hallmark of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, which is a prodrome of α-synucleinopathy. This online survey was conducted between May and August 2020 in 15 countries/regions targeting adult participants (aged ≥18?years) from the general population with a harmonised structured questionnaire on sleep patterns and disorders, COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms. We assessed dream-enactment behaviours using the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder Single-Question Screen with an additional question on their frequency. Among 26,539 respondents, 21,870 (82.2%) answered all items that were analysed in this study (mean [SD] age 41.6 [15.8] years;female sex 65.5%). The weighted prevalence of lifetime and weekly dream-enactment behaviours was 19.4% and 3.1% and were found to be 1.8- and 2.9-times higher in COVID-19-positive cases, respectively. Both lifetime and weekly dream-enactment behaviours were associated with young age, male sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, higher physical activity level, nightmares, COVID-19 diagnosis, olfactory impairment, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorder features. Among COVID-19-positive cases, weekly dream-enactment behaviours were positively associated with the severity of COVID-19. Dream-enactment behaviours are common among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic and further increase among patients with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential neurodegenerative effect of COVID-19.

2.
Stress Health ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772851

ABSTRACT

The psychological consequences of COVID-19 pandemic may include the activation of stress systems, that involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which influences many physiological functions, including sleep. Despite epidemiological studies evidenced greater prevalence of stress symptoms and sleep disturbances during COVID-19, longitudinal evidence investigating the effects of stress on sleep disturbances during the pandemic is lacking. We collected measures of perceived stress and sleep disturbances during the first wave of COVID-19 (March 2020) and at 8-10 months follow up in a sample of 648 adults (M = 33.52, SD = 12.98 years). Results showed that 39.4% of participants reported moderate to extremely severe stress in March 2020. Prevalence of sleep disturbances was 54.8% in March 2020 and 57.4% at follow-up. Structural equation modelling highlighted that perceived stress in March 2020 significantly predicted sleep disturbances at follow up (ß = 0.203; p < 0.001), even after controlling for baseline sleep disturbances. Results remained significant even after controlling for the effects of covariates including age, sex, depression and anxiety symptoms, and referring to psychological services (ß = 0.179; p < 0.05). Findings confirm the high prevalence of stress symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide first longitudinal evidence for the effects of perceived stress on sleep disturbances during the pandemic.

3.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 93-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701377

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A growing number of studies have demonstrated that the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected sleep and dream activity in healthy people. To date, no investigation has examined dream activity specifically in COVID-19 patients. Methods: As part of the International COVID-19 Sleep Study (ICOSS), we compared 544 COVID-19 participants with 544 matched-controls. A within-subjects comparison between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods computed separately for controls and COVID-19 participants were performed on dream recall and nightmare frequency (DRF; NF). Also, non-parametric comparisons between controls and COVID-19 participants were carried out. Further, we compared psychological measures between the groups collected during pandemic. Ordinal logistic regression to detect the best predictors of NF was performed. Results: We found that people reported greater dream activity during the pandemic. Comparisons between controls and COVID-19 participants revealed a) no difference between groups concerning DRF in the pre-pandemic period and during the pandemic; b) no difference between groups concerning nightmare frequency in the pre-pandemic period; and c) COVID-19 participants reported significantly higher NF than controls during pandemic (p = 0.003). Additionally, we showed that a) anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress-disorder (PTSD) symptom scores were higher in COVID-19 participants than controls; and b) quality of life and health as well as wellbeing (WHO-5) scores were significantly higher in controls than COVID-19 participants. Finally, ordinal logistic regression indicates that DRF (p < 0.001), PTSD (p < 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.018), insomnia (p = 0.039), COVID-19 severity (p = 0.014), sleep duration (p = 0.003) and age (p = 0.001) predicted NF. Discussion: Our work shows strong associations between increased nightmares in those reporting having had COVID-19. This suggests that the more that people were affected by COVID-19, the greater the impact upon dream activity and quality of life.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315094

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 outbreak is severely affecting overall mental health with unknown psychological consequences. The Italian Government has implemented a massive lockdown to decrease the spread of the virus. Although a strong psychological impact is possible, few evidences are still available. Past studies have shown that resilience decreases the negative effects of stress promoting mental health. For these reasons, this study aimed to examine depression, anxiety, and stress among the Italian general population during the phase characterizing by lockdown, and to investigate the role of resilience as a potential predictor. MethodsA total sample of 6314 Italian people participated in this study. Participants were recruited between March 10 and May 4 2020 through an online survey, the majority of whom from Northern Italy. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) (a measure of mental health status) and the Resilience Scale (RS) (a measure of resilience) were administered. Also, demographic data and lockdown related information were collected. DASS-21 cut-off scores were used to verify the mental status among the participants. Subsequently, a correlational analysis was carried out to examine relationships between DASS-21 and RS. Lastly, three hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using the three DASS-21 scales as dependent variables and the RS scales as independent variables controlling for age, gender, and education. ResultsThe prevalence of moderate to extremely severe symptoms among participants was 36.1% for depression, 28.7% for anxiety, and 35.6% for stress. Results of correlational analysis showed that resilience factors, such as meaningfulness, self-reliance, existential aloneness, and equanimity, are inversely associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Results of regression analyses indicated that all the resilience factors were statistically significant in predicting anxiety, while meaningfulness, perseverance, existential aloneness, and equanimity predicted depression and stress. ConclusionsDuring the lockdown following the COVID-19 outbreak, about a third of respondents reported moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress. The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress and psychological ill-being. These findings can help explain the variability of individual responses during the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychological interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome COVID-related emotional impact.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310633

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seriously affected all Italy. The extreme virulence, the speed of propagation resulted in restrictions and home confinement. This change was immediately perceived by people who found themselves exposed to feelings of uncertainty, fear, anger, stress and a drastic change in the diurnal but above all nocturnal lifestyle. For these reasons, we aimed to study the quality of sleep and its connection to distress levels and evaluate how lifestyle changed in the Italian population during the lockdown.MethodsThrough an internet survey we recruited 6,519 adults during the whole COVID-19 lockdown (from 10thMarch – 1st phase - to 4th May – 2nd phase). We investigated the socio-demographic and COVID-19 related information and assessed sleep quality using the Medical Outcomes Study - sleep scale (MOS-SS) and mental health with the short form of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales – 21 Items (DASS-21). Multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the multivariate association between the dependent variable (good sleeper vs. poor sleeper) and all the variables that were significant in the univariate analysis.Results3,562 (55.32%) participants reported poor sleep quality according to the MOS-Sleep Index II score. The multiple binary logistic regression results of poor sleepers reveal several risk factors during the outbreak restrictions: female gender, living in Central Italy, having someone close who died due to COVID-19, markedly changed sleep-wake rhythm characterized by earlier or postponed habitual bedtime, earlier habitual awakening time and reduced number of afternoon naps, extremely severe levels of stress, of anxiety, and of depression. ConclusionsThis is the first study designed to understand sleep quality and sleep habits during the whole lockdown in the Italian population that provides more than 6,000 participants in a survey developed specifically for the health emergency related to COVID-19. Our study found that more than half of the Italian population have had impaired sleep quality and sleep habits elevated psychological distress during the COVID-19 lockdown containment measures. A multidisciplinary action should be taken in order to plan appropriate responses to the current crisis caused by the COVID-19 health emergency.

6.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 41-51, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634571

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Previous studies showed poor sleep quality during the first Italian lockdown consequent to the quick spread of the virus. Poor sleep quality remained stable during the so-called "second wave", which started in Autumn 2020. This study aimed to compare sleep quality between the two waves of contagions and to examine the effect of resilience, together with sociodemographic and COVID-related variables, on sleep quality during the second wave. Patients and Methods: A total of 648 participated in this longitudinal study through an online survey during the first lockdown consequent to the COVID-19 and during the second wave. The Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale (MOS-SS) and the Resilience Scale (RS) were administered. Sociodemographic and COVID-related information were also collected. Results: The results showed sleep quality slightly increased in the second wave, even though with a small effect size. Correlational analysis showed that resilience is inversely correlated with sleep quality measured in the two waves. Sleep quality during the second wave was positively correlated with sleep quality in the first lockdown. Likewise, the results of multiple regression revealed that the sleep quality in the first lockdown and resilience were significant predictors of sleep quality during the second wave. Conclusion: These findings highlighted that the prevalence of poor sleepers remained high during the second wave. Together with the sleep quality in the first lockdown, resilience represents an important factor related to sleep quality during the second wave. Interventions to improve sleep quality among the general population should take into account these findings.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050672, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Sleep is important for human health and well-being. No previous study has assessed whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacts sleep and daytime function across the globe. METHODS: This large-scale international survey used a harmonised questionnaire. Fourteen countries participated during the period of May-August 2020. Sleep and daytime problems (poor sleep quality, sleep onset and maintenance problems, nightmares, hypnotic use, fatigue and excessive sleepiness) occurring 'before' and 'during' the pandemic were investigated. In total, 25 484 people participated and 22 151 (86.9%) responded to the key parameters and were included. Effects of COVID-19, confinement and financial suffering were considered. In the fully adjusted logistic regression models, results (weighted and stratified by country) were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, presence of sleep problems before COVID-19 and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in each country at the time of the survey. RESULTS: The responders were mostly women (64%) with a mean age 41.8 (SD 15.9) years (median 39, range 18-95). Altogether, 3.0% reported having had COVID-19; 42.2% reported having been in confinement; and 55.9% had suffered financially. All sleep and daytime problems worsened during the pandemic by about 10% or more. Also, some participants reported improvements in sleep and daytime function. For example, sleep quality worsened in about 20% of subjects and improved in about 5%. COVID-19 was particularly associated with poor sleep quality, early morning awakening and daytime sleepiness. Confinement was associated with poor sleep quality, problems falling asleep and decreased use of hypnotics. Financial suffering was associated with all sleep and daytime problems, including nightmares and fatigue, even in the fully adjusted logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems, fatigue and excessive sleepiness increased significantly worldwide during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problems were associated with confinement and especially with financial suffering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Sleep Med ; 88: 46-57, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly affected daily habits and psychological wellbeing, and many studies point to large modifications in several sleep and sleep-related domains. Nevertheless, pre-sleep arousal during the pandemic has been substantially overlooked. Since hyperarousal represents one of the main factors for the development and the perpetuation of chronic insomnia disorder, the assessment of variables associated with high levels of pre-sleep arousal during the pandemic is clinically relevant. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of perceived sleep quality and pre-sleep arousal in an Italian sample during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: We used an online survey to collect self-reported sociodemographic, environmental, clinical, sleep, and sleep-related data. Our final sample included 761 participants. RESULTS: Beyond a high frequency of poor sleep quality, depressive and stress symptoms, our results show that almost half of the sample suffered from clinically relevant levels of at least one component (ie, cognitive, somatic) of pre-sleep arousal. Subjects with greater pre-sleep arousal exhibited poorer sleep quality. Also, sleep quality was strongly associated with somatic and cognitive pre-sleep arousal. Regarding the predictors of sleep and sleep-related measures, depressive and event-related stress symptoms were the main factors associated with both poor sleep quality and pre-sleep arousal components. Moreover, specific sociodemographic and environmental variables were uniquely related to sleep quality, cognitive or somatic pre-sleep arousal. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the assessment of specific sleep-related factors (ie, pre-sleep arousal), together with more global measures of sleep quality, may be crucial to depict the complex impact of the pandemic on sleep, and to help prevent and counteract the spread of insomnia symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Arousal , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Brain Sci ; 11(11)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523871

ABSTRACT

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep have been widely documented, but longitudinal evaluations during different phases of the "COVID-19 era" are needed to disentangle the specific consequences of the r145estrictive measures on sleep variables. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effect of the lockdown's end on sleep and sleep-related dimensions in an Italian sample, also considering the stress and depressive symptoms. We used an online survey to longitudinally collect data on sociodemographic, environmental, clinical, sleep, and sleep-related variables in two time points: during and immediately after the lockdown. The final sample included 102 participants. The large prevalence of poor sleep quality, clinically relevant pre-sleep arousal, and depressive symptoms, as well as poor sleep quality and pre-sleep arousal score observed during the lockdown, remained stable after its end. On the other hand, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe event-related stress and intrusive symptom scores exhibited a drastic reduction after the end of home confinement. Both bedtime and rise time were anticipated after the lockdown, while sleep quality exhibited only a trend of post-lockdown sleep disturbance reduction. Our findings point to a reduced stress level (specific for the intrusive symptomatology) after the end of the lockdown and persistence of sleep problems, suggesting two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: (a) the strict restrictive measures are not the main cause of sleep problems during the pandemic and (b) home confinement induces long-lasting effects on sleep observable after its end, and a longer period of time might be needed to observe an improvement.

10.
Brain Sci ; 11(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480584

ABSTRACT

Recent literature shows that the Coronovirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has provoked significant changes in dreaming. The current study intends to provide an update about dream variable changes during the second wave of COVID-19. A total of 611 participants completed a web survey from December 2020 to January 2021. Statistical comparisons showed that subjects had lower dream-recall frequency, nightmare frequency, lucid-dream frequency, emotional intensity, and nightmare distress during the second than the first wave of the pandemic. Dreams had a higher negative tone during the second than first wave. We revealed significant differences concerning post-traumatic growth, sleep-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and sleep measures between groups obtained as a function of the changes in the oneiric frequency between the first and second waves. We also found significant correlations between qualitative/emotional dream features and COVID-19-related factors (job change, forced quarantine, having COVID-19 infected relatives/friends, or asking for mental health help). Overall, we found that the second wave affected fewer quantitative features of dream activity and there was less emotional intensity. Moreover, we confirmed the relationship between nightmares and the high risk of PTSD when subjects were grouped as a function of the increasing/decreasing frequency. Finally, our findings are partly coherent with the continuity hypothesis between oneiric and waking experiences.

11.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1711-1722, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lifestyle and work habits have been drastically altered by restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the associated changes in sleep timing modulate the risk of suffering from symptoms of insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, is however incompletely understood. Here, we evaluate the association between the early pandemic-associated change in 1) the magnitude of social jetlag (SJL) - ie, the difference between sleep timing on working vs free days - and 2) symptoms of insomnia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14,968 anonymous participants (mean age: 40 years; 64% females) responded to a standardized internet-based survey distributed across 14 countries. Using logistic multivariate regression, we examined the association between the degree of social jetlag and symptoms of insomnia, controlling for important confounders like social restriction extension, country specific COVID-19 severity and psychological distress, for example. RESULTS: In response to the pandemic, participants reported later sleep timing, especially during workdays. Most participants (46%) exhibited a reduction in their SJL, whereas 20% increased it; and 34% reported no change in SJL. Notably, we found that both increased and decreased SJL, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with later sleep midpoint (indicating a later chronotype) as well as more recurrent and moderate-to-severe symptoms of insomnia (about 23-54% higher odds ratio than subjects with unchanged SJL). Primarily those with reduced SJL shifted their bedtimes to a later timepoint, compared with those without changes in SJL. CONCLUSION: Our findings offer important insights into how self-reported changes to the stability of sleep/wake timing, as reflected by changes in SJL, can be a critical marker of the risk of experiencing insomnia-related symptoms - even when individuals manage to reduce their social jetlag. These findings emphasize the clinical importance of analyzing sleep-wake regularity.

12.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1573-1591, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many have reported odd dreams during the pandemic. Given that dreams are associated with mental health, understanding these changes could provide crucial information about wellbeing during the pandemic. This study explored associations between COVID-19 and dream recall frequency (DRF), and related social, health, and mental health factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional web survey of 19,355 individuals in 14 countries from May to July 2020. We collected data on COVID-19, mental health, sleep and DRF during the pandemic. We performed McNemar Tests to compare low (<3 nights per week) and high DRF (≥3 nights per week) before and during COVID-19 and to evaluate changes in sleep variables segmented by DRF. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare characteristics between low and high DRF. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between various independent variables and DRF. RESULTS: Reports of high DRF during the pandemic were higher than before the pandemic (P<0.001). Female gender (aOR=1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), nightmares (aOR=4.22, 95% CI 3.45-5.17), sleep talking (aOR= 2.36, 1.73-3.23), sleep maintenance problems (aOR=1.34, 95% CI 1.15-1.56), symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD; aOR=1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41) and repeated disturbing thoughts (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) were associated with high DRF. Age group 55-64 years (aOR=0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.83) reported less high DRF than younger participants. Unadjusted OR showed associations between depression, anxiety, and DRF; however, in adjusted regression depression (aOR= 0.71, 0.59-0.86) and anxiety (aOR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94) were negatively associated with high DRF. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: DRF was higher than pre-pandemic levels across four continents. DRF was associated with gender and parasomnias like nightmares and RBD symptoms, sleep maintenance problems, PTSD symptoms and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. The results implicate that COVID-19 is reflected in our dreams as an expression of the emotional intensity of the pandemic.

13.
Sleep ; 45(2)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371748

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Individual circadian type is a ubiquitous trait defining sleep, with eveningness often associated with poorer sleep and mental health than morningness. However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 pandemic has differentially affected sleep and mental health depending on the circadian type. Here, the differences in sleep and mental health between circadian types are examined globally before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample collected between May and August 2020 across 12 countries/regions consisted of 19 267 adults with information on their circadian type. Statistical analyses were performed by using Complex Sample procedures, stratified by country and weighted by the number of inhabitants in the country/area of interest and by the relative number of responders in that country/area. RESULTS: Evening-types had poorer mental health, well-being, and quality of life or health than other circadian types during the pandemic. Sleep-wake schedules were delayed especially on working days, and evening-types reported an increase in sleep duration. Sleep problems increased in all circadian types, but especially among evening-types, moderated by financial suffering and confinement. Intermediate-types were less vulnerable to sleep changes, although morningness protected from most sleep problems. These findings were confirmed after adjusting for age, sex, duration of the confinement, or socio-economic status during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an alarming increase in sleep and mental health problems, especially among evening-types as compared to other circadian types during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Mental Health , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Sleep Res ; 31(2): e13461, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365092

ABSTRACT

The national lockdown imposed in several countries to counteract the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to an unprecedented situation with serious effects on mental health of the general population and of subjects affected by heterogeneous diseases. Considering the positive association between narcoleptic symptoms and creativity, we aimed at exploring the psychological distress associated with COVID-19 restrictions and its relationship with depressive symptoms and creativity in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). A total of 52 patients with NT1 and 50 healthy controls, who completed a previous study on creativity, were contacted during the first lockdown period to complete an online survey evaluating psychological distress related to the COVID-19 outbreak, sleep quality, narcolepsy and depressive symptoms, and creative abilities. The patients with NT1 showed an improvement in subjective sleepiness while controls reported worsening of sleep quality during the lockdown. Depression and NT1 symptom severity proved significant predictors of COVID-19-related distress. Creative performance, namely generative fluency, turned out to be a favourable moderator in the relationship between depression and patients' distress, reducing the detrimental effect of depression on the patients' wellbeing. On the contrary, creative originality proved to be a disadvantageous moderator in the relationship between NT1 symptom severity and the distress associated with this traumatic event indicating a higher vulnerability to developing COVID-19-related distress, particularly evident in patients displaying higher originality. Overall, these results highlight a crucial role of creativity in patients with NT1, suggesting that creative potential could be used as a protective factor against the development of distress associated with the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Narcolepsy , Psychological Distress , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sleep Med ; 87: 38-45, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340841

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE AND STUDY OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has produced unprecedented changes in social, work, and leisure activities, which all have had major impact on sleep and psychological well-being. This study documented the prevalence of clinical cases of insomnia, anxiety, and depression and selected risk factors (COVID-19, confinement, financial burden, social isolation) during the first wave of the pandemic in 13 countries throughout the world. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: International, multi-center, harmonized survey of 22 330 adults (mean age = 41.9 years old, range 18-95; 65.6% women) from the general population in 13 countries and four continents. Participants were invited to complete a standardized web-based survey about sleep and psychological symptoms during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to August 2020. RESULTS: Clinical insomnia symptoms were reported by 36.7% (95% CI, 36.0-37.4) of respondents and 17.4% (95% CI, 16.9-17.9) met criteria for a probable insomnia disorder. There were 25.6% (95% CI, 25.0-26.2) with probable anxiety and 23.1% (95% CI, 22.5-23.6) with probable depression. Rates of insomnia symptoms (>40%) and insomnia disorder (>25%) were significantly higher in women, younger age groups, and in residents of Brazil, Canada, Norway, Poland, USA, and United Kingdom compared to residents from Asian countries (China and Japan, 8% for disorder and 22%-25% for symptoms) (all Ps < 0.01). Proportions of insomnia cases were significantly higher among participants who completed the survey earlier in the first wave of the pandemic relative to those who completed it later. Risks of insomnia were higher among participants who reported having had COVID-19, who reported greater financial burden, were in confinement for a period of four to five weeks, and living alone or with more than five people in same household. These associations remained significant after controlling for age, sex, and psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Insomnia, anxiety, and depression were very prevalent during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health prevention programs are needed to prevent chronicity and reduce long-term adverse outcomes associated with chronic insomnia and mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
J Sleep Res ; 31(1): e13423, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280351

ABSTRACT

The lockdown due to the new coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has led to unparalleled changes in several aspects of human behaviour. During the lockdown, the general population delayed sleep timing and spent more time in bed; however, little is known on the effects of COVID-19 restriction on children and adolescents suffering type 1 narcolepsy. In the last months of 2019, we performed follow-up actigraphy in 18 type 1 narcolepsy children and adolescents under stable pharmacological treatment with sodium oxybate. We contacted these patients for a follow-up actigraphy during the first Italian lockdown. Actigraphs and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for children and adolescents (ESS-CHAD) have been sent to participants' homes. Differences in motor activity were analysed through functional linear modelling. During lockdown, type 1 narcolepsy children and adolescents went to bed and woke up later, slept more during the daytime and napped more frequently. No difference emerged in time in bed, estimated total sleep time and nocturnal sleep quality. Similarly, no difference emerged in ESS-CHAD and body mass index. The time-series analysis of motor activity documented reduced activity during the early morning and in the evening during the lockdown period compared with pre-lockdown. Our study objectively showed that type 1 narcolepsy children and adolescents delayed the sleep phase and slept more during the daytime during the lockdown. The analysis of type 1 narcolepsy children and adolescents' behaviour during the lockdown has provided new information that could pave the way to a personalized school programme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Narcolepsy , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Narcolepsy/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 681569, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266684

ABSTRACT

Some studies highlighted that patients with narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) experience high lucid dream frequency, and this phenomenon has been associated with a creative personality. Starting from the well-known "pandemic effect" on sleep and dreaming, we presented a picture of dream activity in pharmacologically treated NT1 patients during the Italian lockdown. Forty-three NT1 patients completed a web-survey during Spring 2021 and were compared with 86 matched-controls. Statistical comparisons revealed that: (a) NT1 patients showed greater sleepiness than controls; (b) controls showed higher sleep disturbances than NT1 patients, and this result disappeared when the medication effect in NT1 was controlled; (c) NT1 patients reported higher lucid dream frequency than controls. Focusing on dreaming in NT1 patients, we found that (a) nightmare frequency was correlated with female gender, longer sleep duration, higher intrasleep wakefulness; (b) dream recall, nightmare and lucid dream frequency were positively correlated with sleepiness. Comparisons between low and high NT1 lucid dreamers showed that patients more frequently experiencing lucid dreams reported a greater influence of dreaming during wakefulness, especially concerning problem-solving and creativity. Overall, our results are consistent with previous studies on pandemic dreaming carried out on healthy subjects. Moreover, we confirmed a link between lucidity and creativity in NT1 patients. Considering the small sample size and the cross-sectional design, our findings cannot provide a causal relationship between lucid dreams and the COVID-19 lockdown. Nevertheless, they represent a first contribution to address future studies on this issue, suggesting that some stable characteristics could interact with changes provoked by the pandemic.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 631979, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178028

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, individuals with or without mental disorders may resort to dysfunctional psychological strategies that could trigger or heighten their emotional distress. The current study aims to explore the links between maladaptive daydreaming (MD, i.e., a compulsive fantasy activity associated with distress and psychological impairment), psychological symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative stress, and COVID-19-related variables, such as changes in face-to-face and online relationships, during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. A total of 6,277 Italian adults completed an online survey, including socio-demographic variables, COVID-19 related information, the 16-item Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16), and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 Items (DASS-21). Based on an empirically derived cut-off score, 1,082 participants (17.2%) were identified as probable maladaptive daydreamers (MDers). A binary logistic regression revealed that compared to controls, probable MDers reported that during the COVID-19 lockdown they experienced higher levels of anxiety and depression, decreased online social relationships, and, surprisingly, stable or increased face-to-face social relationships. Given the peculiar characteristics of the pandemic context, these findings suggest that the exposure to the risk of contagion had probably exacerbated the tendency of probable MDers to lock themselves inside their mental fantasy worlds, which in turn may have contributed to further estrangement from online social relationships and support, thus worsening their emotional distress.

19.
J Sleep Res ; 30(5): e13300, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066730

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has critically impacted the world. Recent works have found substantial changes in sleep and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dreams could give us crucial information about people's well-being, so here we have directly investigated the consequences of lockdown on the oneiric activity in a large Italian sample: 5,988 adults completed a web-survey during lockdown. We investigated sociodemographic and COVID-19-related information, sleep quality (by the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale), mental health (by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales), dream and nightmare frequency, and related emotional aspects (by the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire). Comparisons between our sample and a population-based sample revealed that Italians are having more frequent nightmares and dreams during the pandemic. A multiple logistic regression model showed the predictors of high dream recall (young age, female gender, not having children, sleep duration) and high nightmare frequency (young age, female gender, modification of napping, sleep duration, intrasleep wakefulness, sleep problem index, anxiety, depression). Moreover, we found higher emotional features of dream activity in workers who have stopped working, in people who have relatives/friends infected by or who have died from COVID-19 and in subjects who have changed their sleep habits. Our findings point to the fact that the predictors of high dream recall and nightmares are consistent with the continuity between sleep mentation and daily experiences. According to the arousal-retrieval model, we found that poor sleep predicts a high nightmare frequency. We suggest monitoring dream changes during the epidemic, and also considering the implications for clinical treatment and prevention of mental and sleep disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Dreams , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(6): 337-341, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992941

ABSTRACT

Insomnia symptoms might affect about 60% of the Italian population. Insomnia is a "24 hours syndrome" and a risk factor for medical and mental disorders. It should always be assessed and treated in the clinical practice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia is the first line treatment but its availability in Italy is scarce. Pharmacological options in Italy are: melatonin 2 mg prolonged release that should be the first choice in subjects ≥55 years old and used until 13 weeks; and for a short term use (≤4 weeks) Z-drugs or short-acting benzodiazepines (in subjects <65 years old) or a sedating antidepressant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Aids, Pharmaceutical/therapeutic use , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , GABA Agonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Receptors, Melatonin/agonists , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Societies, Scientific
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