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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 720084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367756

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The transmission rates severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from children to adults are unclear due to a lack of controlled conditions. Materials and Methods: We investigated the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among 12 discordant child-parent pairs in our ward. In each hospital isolation room, caregivers and children lived in close contact during the entire hospitalization period. Results: A total of 136 swab-positive children (mean age, 3.6 ± 4.9 median age, 1; IQR 0-6.2, range 0.1-17) attended by their caregivers were hospitalized. Of those, 12/136 (8.8%, mean age, 6.1 ± 5.3 median age, 4.5) were attended by caregivers who were swab and serology negative at admission despite previous close contact with positive children at home. Three children were completely dependent on their mothers, one of whom was being breastfed. The mean duration of overall exposure to the index case was 20.5 ± 8.2 days. Conclusion: None of the infected children transmitted SARS-CoV-2 infection to their caregivers, raising the hypothesis of a cluster of resistant mothers or of limited transmission from children to adults despite prolonged exposure and close contact. These data might provide reassurance regarding school openings and offer the chance of investigating SARS-CoV-2 variants in the future under the same quasi-experimental conditions.

4.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(3): e42-e47, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The paucity of symptoms and the difficulties in wearing personal protective equipment make children a potential source of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for health care workers (HCWs). Previous experience in pediatric settings reported high rate of intrahospital SARS-CoV-2 transmission in HCWs caring for children. We aimed at investigating the rate and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs working in a regional reference center in the Southern Italy. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among HCWs and investigate the relation between the infection rate and hours of exposure or number and characteristics of procedures, including nasopharyngeal swab, high-flow oxygen delivery, suctioning of airway secretions, sputum induction, and nebulizer administration. RESULTS: After 5 months of monitoring, 425.6 hours of SARS-CoV-2 exposure (18.5 hours per person), and 920 hospital procedures, no case of nosocomial transmission was reported among the 23 HCWs enrolled in the study. CONCLUSIONS: The application of stringent preventive measures, also outside the area dedicated to patients' care, can effectively control infection spreading also in pediatric settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 170, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In comparison with adults, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children has a milder course. The management of children with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be appropriately targeted. METHODS: We designed a hub-and-spoke system to provide healthcare indications based on the use of telemedicine and stringent admission criteria, coordinate local stakeholders and disseminate information. RESULT: Between March 24th and September 24th 2020, the Hub Centre managed a total of 208 children (52% males, median age, 5.2, IQR 2-9.6 years) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Among them, 174 were managed in cooperation with family pediatricians and 34 with hospital-based physicians. One hundred-four (50%) received a final diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Application of stringent criteria for hospital admission based on clinical conditions, risk factors and respect of biocontainment measures, allowed to manage the majority of cases (74, 71.1%) through telemedicine. Thirty children (28%) were hospitalized (median length 10 days, IQR 5-19 days), mainly due to the presence of persistent fever, mild respiratory distress or co-infection occurring in infant or children with underlying conditions. However, the reasons for admission slightly changed over time. CONCLUSION: An hub-and-spoke system is effective in coordinate territorial health-care structures involved in management paediatric COVID-19 cases through telemedicine and the definition of stringent hospital admission criteria. The management of children with COVID-19 should be based on clinical conditions, assessed on a case-by-case critical evaluation, as well as on isolation measures, but may vary according to local epidemiological changes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disease Management , Health Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on psychological impact of COVID-19 quarantine in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a chronic disorder with recurrent pulmonary exacerbations, is lacking. Psychological well-being was prospectively assessed during COVID-19 lockdown in Italy in a PCD population. METHODS: we recruited 27 PCD patients and 27 healthy controls. To assess psychological well-being, psychological general well-being index and parenting stress index-short questionnaires were administered to participants ≥15 years-old and to mothers of participants <15 years-old, respectively. The PCD exacerbations since outbreak onset and frequency of quarantine weekly chest physiotherapy were compared to the same period of 2019. OUTCOMES: 70% of PCD mothers and 90% of PCD patients did not show parental stress levels or distress levels, respectively, and these groups showed no significant difference in stress compared to controls. The PCD pulmonary exacerbations occurred less frequently and weekly chest physiotherapy sessions significantly increased compared to the same period during 2019 (p < 0.05). INTERPRETATION: During COVID-19 quarantine, a PCD population showed psychological well-being. Low exacerbation rate, explained by lower infectious exposure or improved compliance to chest physiotherapy, likely contributed to psychological well-being. Evaluating psychological burden and parental stress is a valuable tool for measuring the emotional impact of PCD and improving PCD medical care.


Subject(s)
Ciliary Motility Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mothers , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(21):8099, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896503

ABSTRACT

Background: Information on psychological impact of COVID-19 quarantine in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a chronic disorder with recurrent pulmonary exacerbations, is lacking. Psychological well-being was prospectively assessed during COVID-19 lockdown in Italy in a PCD population. Methods: we recruited 27 PCD patients and 27 healthy controls. To assess psychological well-being, psychological general well-being index and parenting stress index-short questionnaires were administered to participants ≥15 years-old and to mothers of participants <15 years-old, respectively. The PCD exacerbations since outbreak onset and frequency of quarantine weekly chest physiotherapy were compared to the same period of 2019. Outcomes: 70% of PCD mothers and 90% of PCD patients did not show parental stress levels or distress levels, respectively, and these groups showed no significant difference in stress compared to controls. The PCD pulmonary exacerbations occurred less frequently and weekly chest physiotherapy sessions significantly increased compared to the same period during 2019 (p <0.05). Interpretation: During COVID-19 quarantine, a PCD population showed psychological well-being. Low exacerbation rate, explained by lower infectious exposure or improved compliance to chest physiotherapy, likely contributed to psychological well-being. Evaluating psychological burden and parental stress is a valuable tool for measuring the emotional impact of PCD and improving PCD medical care.

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