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1.
Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147455

ABSTRACT

Although pharmacists are key members of the healthcare team, they are currently ineligible to independently prescribe the oral coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antivirals. We report the roles pharmacists have undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide evidence for the support of independent oral COVID-19 antiviral prescribing.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(10): 928-930, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050126
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab268, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320320

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein are important outpatient treatment options in coronavirus disease 2019 to mitigate progression of disease and prevent hospitalization. The impact of different RBD mutations on the efficacy of the available monoclonal antibodies and processes for incorporating this impact into treatment algorithms are ill defined. Herein, we synthesize the data surrounding the impact of key RBD mutations on the efficacy of US Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorized monoclonal antibodies and describe our approach at Michigan Medicine at monitoring mutation frequency in circulating virus and developing an algorithm that incorporates these data into outpatient treatment pathways.

4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(3): 561-572, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690866

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently responsible for a global pandemic. To date, only remdesivir and dexamethasone have demonstrated a positive response in a prospective, randomized trial for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an agent available in an oral formulation with in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 that has been suggested as a potential agent. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials evaluating HCQ as treatment against a control group are lacking, and little is known about its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile against SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this review was to describe the current understanding of the PK/PD and dose selection of HCQ against SARS-CoV-2, discuss knowledge gaps, and identify future studies that are needed to optimize the efficacy and safety of treatments against COVID-19.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e445-e454, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest in rapid decompensation and respiratory failure with elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with cytokine release syndrome for which IL-6 blockade is an approved treatment. METHODS: We assessed effectiveness and safety of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in a single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was survival probability postintubation; secondary analyses included an ordinal illness severity scale integrating superinfections. Outcomes in patients who received tocilizumab compared with tocilizumab-untreated controls were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression with propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: 154 patients were included, of whom 78 received tocilizumab and 76 did not. Median follow-up was 47 days (range, 28-67). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although tocilizumab-treated patients were younger (mean: 55 vs 60 years), less likely to have chronic pulmonary disease (10% vs 28%), and had lower D-dimer values at time of intubation (median: 2.4 vs 6.5 mg/dL). In IPTW-adjusted models, tocilizumab was associated with a 45% reduction in hazard of death (HR, .55; 95% CI, .33-.90) and improved status on the ordinal outcome scale [OR per 1-level increase, .58; .36-.94). Although tocilizumab was associated with an increased proportion of patients with superinfections (54% vs 26%; P < .001), there was no difference in 28-day case fatality rate among tocilizumab-treated patients with versus without superinfection (22% vs 15%; P = .42). Staphylococcus aureus accounted for ~50% of bacterial pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, tocilizumab was associated with lower mortality despite higher superinfection occurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(3): 525-536, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640436

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a nucleoside antiviral recently studied in several randomized trials for treatment of COVID-19. The available observational and prospective data are conflicting, requiring clinicians to critically evaluate and reconcile results to determine patient populations that may optimally benefit from remdesivir therapy, especially while drug supply is scarce. In this review, we analyze pertinent clinical remdesivir data for patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, through May 31, 2020.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(4): ofaa105, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-61213

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread across the globe resulting in a pandemic. At the time of this review, COVID-19 has been diagnosed in more than 200 000 patients and associated with over 8000 deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization). On behalf of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists, we herein summarize the current evidence as of March 18, 2020 to provide guidance on potential COVID-19 treatment options. It is important to caution readers that new data emerges daily regarding clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcomes for COVID-19. Optimized supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy, and the clinical efficacy for the subsequent agents is still under investigation. Antimicrobial stewardship programs, including infectious diseases pharmacists and physicians, are at the forefront of COVID-19 emergency preparedness. We encourage all readers to continue to assess clinical data as it emerges and share their experience within our community in a well-controlled, adequately powered fashion.

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