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1.
Microorganisms ; 9(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227044

ABSTRACT

Virus evolution and mutation analyses are crucial for tracing virus transmission, the potential variants, and other pathogenic determinants. Despite continuing circulation of the SARS-CoV-2, very limited studies have been conducted on genetic evolutionary analysis of the virus in Bangladesh. In this study, a total of 791 complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from Bangladesh deposited in the GISAID database during March 2020 to January 2021 were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed circulation of seven GISAID clades G, GH, GR, GRY, L, O, and S or five Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, 20C, 19A, and 19B in the country during the study period. The GISAID clade GR or the Nextstrain clade 20B or lineage B.1.1.25 is predominant in Bangladesh and closely related to the sequences from India, USA, Canada, UK, and Italy. The GR clade or B.1.1.25 lineage is likely to be responsible for the widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the country during the first wave of infection. Significant amino acid diversity was observed among Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 isolates, where a total of 1023 mutations were detected. In particular, the D614G mutation in the spike protein (S_D614G) was found in 97% of the sequences. However, the introduction of lineage B.1.1.7 (UK variant/S_N501Y) and S_E484K mutation in lineage B.1.1.25 in a few sequences reported in late December 2020 is of particular concern. The wide genomic diversity indicated multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Bangladesh through various routes. Therefore, a continuous and extensive genome sequence analysis would be necessary to understand the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladesh.

2.
Nature ; 592(7852): 122-127, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104508

ABSTRACT

During the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, a D614G substitution in the spike glycoprotein (S) has emerged; virus containing this substitution has become the predominant circulating variant in the COVID-19 pandemic1. However, whether the increasing prevalence of this variant reflects a fitness advantage that improves replication and/or transmission in humans or is merely due to founder effects remains unknown. Here we use isogenic SARS-CoV-2 variants to demonstrate that the variant that contains S(D614G) has enhanced binding to the human cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), increased replication in primary human bronchial and nasal airway epithelial cultures as well as in a human ACE2 knock-in mouse model, and markedly increased replication and transmissibility in hamster and ferret models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data show that the D614G substitution in S results in subtle increases in binding and replication in vitro, and provides a real competitive advantage in vivo-particularly during the transmission bottleneck. Our data therefore provide an explanation for the global predominance of the variant that contains S(D614G) among the SARS-CoV-2 viruses that are currently circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Ferrets/virology , Founder Effect , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Genetic Fitness , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/analysis , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 51, 2021 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection of pathogens in clinical and environmental samples using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is often hampered by large amounts of background information, which is especially true for viruses with small genomes. Enormous sequencing depth can be necessary to compile sufficient information for identification of a certain pathogen. Generic HTS combining with in-solution capture enrichment can markedly increase the sensitivity for virus detection in complex diagnostic samples. METHODS: A virus panel based on the principle of biotinylated RNA baits was developed for specific capture enrichment of epizootic and zoonotic viruses (VirBaits). The VirBaits set was supplemented by a SARS-CoV-2 predesigned bait set for testing recent SARS-CoV-2-positive samples. Libraries generated from complex samples were sequenced via generic HTS (without enrichment) and afterwards enriched with the VirBaits set. For validation, an internal proficiency test for emerging epizootic and zoonotic viruses (African swine fever virus, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, Nipah henipavirus, Rift Valley fever virus) was conducted. RESULTS: The VirBaits set consists of 177,471 RNA baits (80-mer) based on about 18,800 complete viral genomes targeting 35 epizootic and zoonotic viruses. In all tested samples, viruses with both DNA and RNA genomes were clearly enriched ranging from about 10-fold to 10,000-fold for viruses including distantly related viruses with at least 72% overall identity to viruses represented in the bait set. Viruses showing a lower overall identity (38% and 46%) to them were not enriched but could nonetheless be detected based on capturing conserved genome regions. The internal proficiency test supports the improved virus detection using the combination of HTS plus targeted enrichment but also points to the risk of cross-contamination between samples. CONCLUSIONS: The VirBaits approach showed a high diagnostic performance, also for distantly related viruses. The bait set is modular and expandable according to the favored diagnostics, health sector, or research question. The risk of cross-contamination needs to be taken into consideration. The application of the RNA-baits principle turned out to be user friendly, and even non-experts can easily use the VirBaits workflow. The rapid extension of the established VirBaits set adapted to actual outbreak events is possible as shown for SARS-CoV-2. Video abstract.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Animals , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viruses/classification
4.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915978

ABSTRACT

During the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in humans a D614G substitution in the spike (S) protein emerged and became the predominant circulating variant (S-614G) of the COVID-19 pandemic 1 . However, whether the increasing prevalence of the S-614G variant represents a fitness advantage that improves replication and/or transmission in humans or is merely due to founder effects remains elusive. Here, we generated isogenic SARS-CoV-2 variants and demonstrate that the S-614G variant has (i) enhanced binding to human ACE2, (ii) increased replication in primary human bronchial and nasal airway epithelial cultures as well as in a novel human ACE2 knock-in mouse model, and (iii) markedly increased replication and transmissibility in hamster and ferret models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, our data show that while the S-614G substitution results in subtle increases in binding and replication in vitro , it provides a real competitive advantage in vivo , particularly during the transmission bottle neck, providing an explanation for the global predominance of S-614G variant among the SARS-CoV-2 viruses currently circulating.

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