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Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089985


Secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by KPC- and NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) during the course of COVID-19 infections lead to significant mortality. Herein, a comparative retrospective case series of KPC- or NDM-K.p. BSIs occurring in COVID-19 subjects treated with Ceftazidime/Avibactam (CAZ/AVI) for KPC-K.p., or CAZ/AVI+ Aztreonam (ATM) for NDM-K.p is reported. All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in two Italian hospitals with a BSI between March and September 2021 were included. The main outcome was 14-day mortality. Overall, 44 patients were included: 23 with KPC-K.p. and 21 with NDM-K.p. BSIs. The median (q1-q3) age was 67 (57-75) years, and 32 (72%) were males. The two groups were similar in terms of baseline comorbidity, or severity of COVID-19. Notably, 14-day mortality of KPC-K.p. BSIs and NDM-K.p. BSIs (26% vs. 38%, p = 0.521) and 28-day mortality (35% vs. 48%, p = 0.541) were similar. A Cox regression model of delayed initiation of an appropriate antibiotic therapy after the onset of symptoms independently predicted mortality: initiation between 24 and 72 h (aHR = 12.03; 95% CI = 1.10-130, p = 0.041); and initiation after 72h (aHR = 36.9, 95% CI = 3.22-424, p = 0.004). Moreover, a trend towards an increased risk of mortality was observed for polymicrobial infections (aHR = 3.73, 95% CI = 0.87-15.8, p = 0.074), while a protective effect was observed for a beta-lactam loading dose at the start of treatment (aHR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.02-1.10, p = 0.064). The high mortality of KPC and NDM-K.p. BSIs in COVID-19 patients may be reduced by an early and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Further efforts should be made to develop antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs in COVID-19 wards.

JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(3): dlac064, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961072


Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients who developed secondary infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: Retrospective observational study including COVID-19 patients admitted to 12 Italian hospitals from March to December 2020 who developed a superinfection by CRE. Superinfection was defined as the occurrence of documented bacterial infection >48 h from admission. Patients with polymicrobial infections were excluded. Demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome were collected. Isolates were classified as KPC, metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) and OXA-48-producing CRE. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with 30 day mortality. Results: Overall, 123 patients (median age 66 years, IQR 59-75) were included. The majority of infections occurred in the ICU (81, 65.9%), while 42 (34.1%) in medical wards. The most common types of infection were bloodstream infections (BSI) (n = 64, 52%), followed by urinary-tract infections (UTI) (n = 28, 22.8%), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) (n = 28, 22.8%), intra-abdominal infections (n = 2, 1.6%) and skin infections (n = 1, 0.8%). Sixty-three (51.2%) infections were caused by KPC-, 54 (43.9%) by MBL-, and 6 (4.8%) by OXA-48-producing CRE. Thirty-day mortality was 33.3% (41/123). On Cox regression analysis, HAP/VAP compared with UTI (HR 7.23, 95% CI 2.09-24.97, P = 0.004), BSI compared with UTI (HR 3.96, 95% CI, 1.33-11.77, P = 0.004), lymphopenia on admission (HR 3, 95% CI 1.44-6.26, P = 0.003) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.002) were predictors of 30 day mortality. Conclusions: Superinfections by CRE were associated with high risk of 30 day mortality in patients with COVID-19. HAP/VAP was the strongest predictor of death in these patients.