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1.
Hematol Oncol ; 40(3): 313-319, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750370

ABSTRACT

In immunocompetent people, the mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 have been shown to be safe and effective against coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). However, results of cohort studies and meta-analyses have indicated that the degree of humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) appears to be lower than that observed in the general population. These inadequate responses are mainly related to the disease itself and to the immunosuppressive effect of therapies administered. In the specific context of CLL, enrolling patients with sub-optimal vaccine-response in pivotal vaccine trials could be considered as an appropriate approach to improve response to the COVID-19 vaccine. These clinical trials should also address the issues of regularity and timing of vaccine booster doses or re-vaccinations, especially in patients undergoing therapy with pathway-targeting agents and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. However, since hypogammaglobulinemia is a serious consequence of CLL, patients who do not have a detectable antibody response should be natural candidates for preventive antibody therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Viral Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
2.
Haematologica ; 107(3): 625-634, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714970

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a suboptimal humoral response to vaccination. Recently, BNT162b2, an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with a high efficacy of 95% in immunocompetent individuals, was introduced. We investigated the safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with CLL from nine medical centers in Israel, Overall 400 patients were included, of whom 373 were found to be eligible for the analysis of antibody response. The vaccine appeared to be safe and only grade 1-2 adverse events were seen in 50% of the patients. Following the second dose, an antibody response was detected in 43% of the cohort. Among these CLL patients, 61% of the treatment-na ve patients responded to the vaccine, while responses developed in only 18% of those with ongoing disease, 37% of those previously treated with a BTK inhibitor and 5% of those recently given an anti-CD20 antibody. Among patients treated with BCL2 as monotherapy or in combination with anti-CD20, 62% and 14%, respectively, developed an immune response. There was a high concordance between neutralizing antibodies and positive serological response to spike protein. Based on our findings we developed a simple seven-factor score including timing of any treatment with anti-CD20, age, treatment status, and IgG, IgA, IgM and hemoglobin levels. The sum of all the above parameters can serve as a possible estimate to predict whether a given CLL patient will develop sufficient antibodies. In conclusion, the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was found to be safe in patients with CLL, but its efficacy is limited, particularly in treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Blood ; 139(5): 678-685, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551192

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an impaired antibody response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Here, we evaluated the antibody response to a third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who failed to achieve a humoral response after standard 2-dose vaccination regimen. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies were measured 3 weeks after administration of the third dose. In 172 patients with CLL, the antibody response rate was 23.8%. Response rate among actively treated patients (12.0%; n = 12/100) was lower compared with treatment-naïve patients (40.0%; n = 16/40; OR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.9-12.9; P < .001) and patients off-therapy (40.6%; n = 13/32; OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-14.1; P < .001), (P < .001). In patients actively treated with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors or venetoclax ± anti-CD20 antibody, response rates were extremely low (15.3%, n = 9/59, and 7.7%, n = 3/39, respectively). Only 1 of the 28 patients (3.6%) treated with anti-CD20 antibodies <12 months prior to vaccination responded. In a multivariate analysis, the independent variables that were associated with response included lack of active therapy (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.8; P < .001) and serum immunoglobulin A levels ≥80 mg/dL (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 2.1-15.9; P < .001). In patients with CLL/SLL who failed to achieve a humoral response after standard 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination regimen, close to a quarter responded to the third dose of vaccine. The antibody response rates were lower during active treatment and in patients with a recent exposure (<12 months prior to vaccination) to anti-CD20 therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04862806.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/blood , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Leukemia ; 35(7): 1864-1872, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216445

ABSTRACT

Standard treatment options in classic HCL (cHCL) result in high response rates and near normal life expectancy. However, the disease itself and the recommended standard treatment are associated with profound and prolonged immunosuppression, increasing susceptibility to infections and the risk for a severe course of COVID-19. The Hairy Cell Leukemia Foundation (HCLF) has recently convened experts and discussed different clinical strategies for the management of these patients. The new recommendations adapt the 2017 consensus for the diagnosis and management with cHCL to the current COVID-19 pandemic. They underline the option of active surveillance in patients with low but stable blood counts, consider the use of targeted and non-immunosuppressive agents as first-line treatment for cHCL, and give recommendations on preventive measures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Consensus , Humans , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/complications , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
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