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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 973918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065578

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly expanded worldwide. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. Small studies explored the use of Krebs von de Lungen-6 circulating serum levels (sKL-6) as a prognostic biomarker of the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at a large study to determine the prognostic value of sKL-6 in predicting evolving trends in COVID-19. We prospectively analyzed the characteristics of 836 patients with COVID-19 with mild lung disease on admission. sKL-6 was obtained in all patients at least at baseline and compared among patients with or without respiratory worsening. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cutoff level. A total of 159 (19%) patients developed respiratory worsening during hospitalization. Baseline sKL-6 levels were not higher in patients who had respiratory worsening (median {IQR} 315.5 {209-469} vs. 306 {214-423} U/ml p = 0.38). The last sKL-6 and the change between baseline and last sKL-6 were higher in the respiratory worsening group (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The best sKL-6 cutoff point for respiratory worsening was 497 U/ml (area under the curve 0.52; 23% sensitivity and 85% specificity). sKL-6 was not found to be an independent predictor of respiratory worsening. A conditional inference tree (CTREE) was not useful to discriminate patients at risk of worsening. We found that sKL-6 had a low sensibility to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia and may not be of use to assess the risk of present respiratory worsening in inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2181-2189, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054900

ABSTRACT

We compared hospital-acquired catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) episodes diagnosed at acute care hospitals in Catalonia, Spain, during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with those detected during 2007-2019. We compared the annual observed and predicted CRB rates by using the negative binomial regression model and calculated stratified annual root mean squared errors. A total of 10,030 episodes were diagnosed during 2007-2020. During 2020, the observed CRB incidence rate was 0.29/103 patient-days, whereas the predicted CRB rate was 0.14/103 patient-days. The root mean squared error was 0.153. Thus, a substantial increase in hospital-acquired CRB cases was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with the rate predicted from 2007-2019. The incidence rate was expected to increase by 1.07 (95% CI 1-1.15) for every 1,000 COVID-19-related hospital admissions. We recommend maintaining all CRB prevention efforts regardless of the coexistence of other challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bacteremia/etiology , Catheters/adverse effects
3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998538

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly expanded worldwide. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. Small studies explored the use of Krebs von de Lungen-6 circulating serum levels (sKL-6) as a prognostic biomarker of the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at a large study to determine the prognostic value of sKL-6 in predicting evolving trends in COVID-19. We prospectively analyzed the characteristics of 836 patients with COVID-19 with mild lung disease on admission. sKL-6 was obtained in all patients at least at baseline and compared among patients with or without respiratory worsening. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cutoff level. A total of 159 (19%) patients developed respiratory worsening during hospitalization. Baseline sKL-6 levels were not higher in patients who had respiratory worsening (median {IQR} 315.5 {209–469} vs. 306 {214–423} U/ml p = 0.38). The last sKL-6 and the change between baseline and last sKL-6 were higher in the respiratory worsening group (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The best sKL-6 cutoff point for respiratory worsening was 497 U/ml (area under the curve 0.52;23% sensitivity and 85% specificity). sKL-6 was not found to be an independent predictor of respiratory worsening. A conditional inference tree (CTREE) was not useful to discriminate patients at risk of worsening. We found that sKL-6 had a low sensibility to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia and may not be of use to assess the risk of present respiratory worsening in inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
J Neurol ; 269(8): 3990-3999, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820925

ABSTRACT

Fatigue in its many forms of physical, mental, and psychosocial exhaustion is a common symptom of post-COVID-19 condition, also known as "Long COVID." Persistent fatigue in COVID-19 patients is frequently accompanied by cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms; however, less is known about the relationships between these components of post-COVID-19 condition and fatigue itself. Consequently, the present study sought to (1) distinguish the types of fatigue experienced by participants, and (2) investigate whether cognitive deficits across various domains and neuropsychiatric conditions predicted these different types of fatigue. The study included 136 COVID-19 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation due to cognitive complaints 8 months on average after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Measures included self-reported fatigue (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial), neuropsychiatric questionnaires (assessing symptoms of depression, anxiety, apathy, and executive functioning), a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and self-reported quality of life and everyday functioning. Results showed that reports of clinical significant fatigue were pervasive in our sample (82.3% of participants), with physical fatigue rated highest on average relative to the subscale maximum. Elevated levels of apathy, anxiety, and executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric measures along with executive and attentional difficulties on cognitive tests were found to be consistently important predictors among different types of fatigue. This implicates both cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms as predictors of fatigue in post-COVID-19 condition, and stresses the importance of a holistic approach in assessing and considering potential treatment for COVID-19 patients experiencing fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur Radiol ; 32(7): 4427-4436, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study reports our experience with paired inspiration/expiration thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans in the follow-up of COVID-19 patients with persistent respiratory symptoms. METHODS: From August 13, 2020, to May 31, 2021, 48 long-COVID patients with respiratory symptoms (27 men and 21 women; median age, 62.0 years; interquartile range: 54.0-69.0 years) underwent follow-up paired inspiration-expiration thin-section CT scans. Patient demographics, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rate, and clinical and laboratory features of acute infection were also included. The scans were obtained on a median of 72.5 days after onset of symptoms (interquartile range: 58.5-86.5) and at least 30 days after hospital discharge. Thin-section CT findings included ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation pattern, consolidation, traction bronchiectasis, reticulation, parenchymal bands, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping. We used a quantitative score to determine the degree of air trapping in the expiratory scans. RESULTS: Parenchymal abnormality was found in 50% (24/48) of patients and included air trapping (37/48, 77%), ground-glass opacities (19/48, 40%), reticulation (18/48, 38%), parenchymal bands (15/48, 31%), traction bronchiectasis (9/48, 19%), mosaic attenuation pattern (9/48, 19%), bronchial wall thickening (6/48, 13%), and consolidation (2/48, 4%). The absence of air trapping was observed in 11/48 (23%), mild air trapping in 20/48 (42%), moderate in 13/48 (27%), and severe in 4/48 (8%). Independent predictors of air trapping were, in decreasing order of importance, gender (p = 0.0085), and age (p = 0.0182). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, in a limited number of patients, suggest that follow-up with paired inspiratory/expiratory CT in long-COVID patients with persistent respiratory symptoms commonly displays air trapping. KEY POINTS: • Our experience indicates that paired inspiratory/expiratory CT in long-COVID patients with persistent respiratory symptoms commonly displays air trapping. • Iterative reconstruction and dose-reduction options are recommended for demonstrating air trapping in long-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
6.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While much of the scientific focus thus far has been on cognitive sequelae in patients with severe COVID-19, subjective cognitive complaints are being reported across the spectrum of disease severity, with recent studies beginning to corroborate patients' perceived deficits. In response to this, the aims of this study were to (1) explore the frequency of impaired performance across cognitive domains in post-COVID patients with subjective complaints and (2) uncover whether impairment existed within a single domain or across multiple. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with subjective cognitive complaints post-COVID were assessed with a comprehensive protocol consisting of various neuropsychological tests and mood measures. Cognitive test performance was transformed into T scores and classified based on recommended guidelines. After performing a principal component analysis to define cognitive domain factors, distributions of test scores within and across domains were analyzed. RESULTS: Results revealed pervasive impact on attention abilities, both as the singularly affected domain (19% of single-domain impairment) as well as coupled with decreased performance in executive functions, learning, and long-term memory. These salient attentional and associated executive deficits were largely unrelated to clinical factors such as hospitalization, disease duration, biomarkers, or affective measures. DISCUSSION: These findings stress the importance of comprehensive evaluation and intervention to address cognitive sequelae in post-COVID patients of varying disease courses, not just those who were hospitalized or experienced severe symptoms. Future studies should investigate to what extent these cognitive abilities are recuperated over time as well as employ neuroimaging techniques to uncover underlying mechanisms of neural damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25923, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blocking IL-6 pathways with sarilumab, a fully human anti-IL-6R antagonist may potentially curb the inflammatory storm of SARS-CoV2. In the present emergency scenario, we used "off-label" sarilumab in 5 elderly patients in life-threatening condition not candidates to further active measures. We suggest that sarilumab can modulate severe COVID-19-associated Cytokine Release Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Immunol ; 223: 108631, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919716

ABSTRACT

Although the starting event in COVID-19 is a viral infection some patients present with an over-exuberant inflammatory response, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since IL-6 plays a critical role in the inflammatory response, we assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in this single-centre, observational study in all Covid-19 in-patient with a proven SARS-CoV-2 rapidly progressing infection to prevent ALI and ARDS. 104 patients with COVID-19 treated with TCZ had a lower mortality rate (5·8%) compared with the regional mortality rate (11%), hospitalized patient's mortality (10%), and slightly lower than hospitalized patients treated with our standard of care alone (6%). We found that TCZ rapidly decreased acute phase reactants, ferritin and liver release of proteins. D-Dimer decreased slowly. We did not observe specific safety concerns. Early administration of IL6-R antagonists in COVID-19 patients with impending hyperinflammatory response, may be safe and effective treatment to prevent, ICU admission and further complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 557, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800714

ABSTRACT

Objective: We set out to analyze the incidence and predictive factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Methods: We prospectively collected data from all consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, a university hospital in Barcelona, between March 9 and April 15, 2020. Patients with suspected PE, according to standardized guidelines, underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Results: A total of 1,275 patients with Covid-19 were admitted to hospital. CTPA was performed on 76 inpatients, and a diagnosis of PE was made in 32 (2.6% [95%CI 1.7-3.5%]). Patients with PE were older, and they exhibited lower PaO2:FiO2 ratios and higher levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP). They more often required admission to ICU and mechanical ventilation, and they often had longer hospital stays, although in-hospital mortality was no greater than in patients without PE. High CRP and D-dimer levels at admission (≥150 mg/L and ≥1,000 ng/ml, respectively) and a peak D-dimer ≥6,000 ng/ml during hospital stay were independent factors associated with PE. Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin did not appear to prevent PE. Increased CRP levels correlated with increased D-dimer levels and both correlated with a lower PaO2:FiO2. Conclusions: The 2.6% incidence of PE in Covid-19 hospitalized patients is clearly high. Higher doses of thromboprophylaxis may be required to prevent PE, particularly in patients at increased risk, such as those with high levels of CRP and D-dimer at admission. These findings should be validated in future studies.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102887, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684307

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be envisaged as the dynamic interaction between four vicious feedback loops chained or happening at once. These are the viral loop, the hyperinflammatory loop, the non-canonical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis loop, and the hypercoagulation loop. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 lights the wick by infecting alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and downregulating the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang-1-7)/Mas1R axis. The viral feedback loop includes evading the host's innate response, uncontrolled viral replication, and turning on a hyperactive adaptative immune response. The inflammatory loop is composed of the exuberant inflammatory response feeding back until exploding in an actual cytokine storm. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas1R axis leaves the lung without a critical defense mechanism and turns the scale to the inflammatory side of the RAS. The coagulation loop is a hypercoagulable state caused by the interplay between inflammation and coagulation in an endless feedback loop. The result is a hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state producing acute immune-mediated lung injury and eventually, adult respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feedback, Physiological , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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