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1.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821319

ABSTRACT

Background The aim of this study was to explore the psychopathological burden related to COVID-19 together with coping strategies in healthcare workers, focusing on differences between frontline and second-line workers. Methods This is a cross-sectional study part of the COvid Mental hEalth Trial (COMET). Participants' socio-demographic and COVID-19-related information was collected through an online survey. Psychiatric symptoms and coping strategies were also investigated. Multivariate analyses, corrected for demographic characteristics, were adopted to assess differences between frontline and second-line workers. Results The sample consisted of 20,720 individuals. Healthcare workers (n = 2907) presented with significantly higher risk for mental health disturbances as compared to the rest of the sample (p < 0.001). Healthcare professionals working versus not working on the front line differed in living in severely impacted areas (p < 0.001), precautionary isolation by COVID-19 (p < 0.001), infection by COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Frontline workers also reported significantly increased insomnia (p < 0.001), depression (p = 0.007), anxiety (p < 0.001), obsessive-compulsive symptoms (p < 0.001), non-specific chronic and acute traumatic stress (p < 0.001;p < 0.001), as well as more adaptive coping strategies (p = 0.001). Limitations The survey was conducted between March and June 2020, at the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Accordingly, the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic might have changed over time. The survey design involved online invitation and it was not possible to assess the participation rate. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study addressing the psychopathological burden of Italian healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak and associated coping strategies. Empowering supportive interventions is crucial for the whole healthcare workforce.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667143

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic and its related containment measures have been associated with increased levels of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. While the use of digital media has been greatly promoted by national governments and international authorities to maintain social contacts and healthy lifestyle behaviors, its increased access may also bear the risk of inappropriate or excessive use of internet-related resources. The present study, part of the COVID Mental hEalth Trial (COMET) study, aims at investigating the possible relationship between social isolation, the use of digital resources and the development of their problematic use. A cross sectional survey was carried out to explore the prevalence of internet addiction, excessive use of social media, problematic video gaming and binge watching, during Italian phase II (May-June 2020) and III (June-September 2020) of the pandemic in 1385 individuals (62.5% female, mean age 32.5 ± 12.9) mainly living in Central Italy (52.4%). Data were stratified according to phase II/III and three groups of Italian regions (northern, central and southern). Compared to the larger COMET study, most participants exhibited significant higher levels of severe-to-extremely-severe depressive symptoms (46.3% vs. 12.4%; p < 0.01) and extremely severe anxiety symptoms (77.8% vs. 7.5%; p < 0.01). We also observed a rise in problematic internet use and excessive gaming over time. Mediation analyses revealed that COVID-19-related general psychopathology, stress, anxiety, depression and social isolation play a significant role in the emergence of problematic internet use, social media addiction and problematic video gaming. Professional gamers and younger subjects emerged as sub-populations particularly at risk of developing digital addictions. If confirmed in larger and more homogenous samples, our findings may help in shedding light on possible preventive and treatment strategies for digital addictions.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Young Adult
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 788139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental and physical health of the general population at any age, but it is expected to have a protracted and severe consequences for younger populations. The pandemic has had several consequences on mental health including anger and irritability, depressive symptoms and somatic complaints, insomnia, lack of motivation, and loneliness. In particular, loneliness and its related negative feelings are thought to be particularly pronounced during young adulthood because of the many social changes that young people deal with during this period of life. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the type of impact of the pandemic on the mental health of young people and their levels of loneliness experienced during the first phase of the lockdown. Based on the largest Italian study on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of general population, in this paper we aim to: (1) describe the levels of loneliness in a national sample of Italian young adults aged 18-34 years, during the first wave of lockdown in 2020; (2) evaluate the clinical and socio-demographic differences in young adults reporting low vs. high levels of loneliness; (3) assess the role of clinical symptomatology, coping strategies, levels of resilience, and duration of lockdown as possible predictors of loneliness. The final sample consists of 8,584 people, mainly female (72.6%), single, with a mean age of 26.4 (±4.4) years. The mean score at the UCLA was 47.5 (±13.6), with 27% (N = 2,311) of respondents exceeding the cut-off for high levels of loneliness. High levels of loneliness were predicted by the presence of avoidant coping strategies, such as self-distraction (Beta coefficient, B = 0.369, 95% Confidence Interval, CI = 0.328-0.411), venting (B = 0.245, 95% CI = 0.197-0.293), denial (B = 0.110, 95% CI = 0.061-0.159), and emotional disengagement (B = 0.133, 95% CI = 0.080-0.185). Weeks of exposure to the pandemic were significantly associated with worsening of loneliness (p < 0.000). There is currently considerable interest in trying to reduce loneliness, both within the context of COVID-19 and more generally. Our results highlight that young people are at a higher risk of developing loneliness and suggest that more interventions and practical guidelines are needed.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580838

ABSTRACT

Major infectious disease outbreaks, such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, create significant distress for the general population, and pose a heavy burden on the healthcare systems called to care for affected individuals and contain the spread of the disease [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Gut Pathog ; 13(1): 62, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) has a tropism for the gastrointestinal tract and several studies have shown an alteration of the gut microbiota in hospitalized infected patients. However, long-term data on microbiota changes after recovery are lacking. METHODS: We enrolled 30 patients hospitalized for SARS­CoV­2-related pneumonia. Their gut microbiota was analyzed within 48 h from the admission and compared with (1) that of other patients admitted for suspected bacterial pneumonia (control group) (2) that obtained from the same subject 6 months after nasopharyngeal swab negativization. RESULTS: Gut microbiota alpha-diversity increased 6 months after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bacteroidetes relative abundance was higher (≈ 36.8%) in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and declined to 18.7% when SARS-CoV-2 infection resolved (p = 0.004). Conversely, Firmicutes were prevalent (≈ 75%) in controls and in samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 infection resolution (p = 0.001). Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Blautia increased after SARS-CoV-2 infection resolution, rebalancing the gut microbiota composition. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with changes in the gut microbiome, which tend to be reversed in long-term period.

6.
Brain Sci ; 11(11)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488488

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented public health emergency, with consequences at the political, social, and economic levels. Mental health services have been called to play a key role in facing the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of the general population. In the period March-May 2020, an online survey was implemented as part of the Covid Mental Health Trial (COMET), a multicentric collaborative study carried out in Italy, one of the Western countries most severely hit by the pandemic. The present study aims to investigate the use of mental health resources during the first wave of the pandemic. The final sample consisted of 20,712 participants, mainly females (N = 14,712, 71%) with a mean age of 40.4 ± 14.3 years. Access to mental health services was reported in 7.7% of cases. Among those referred to mental health services, in 93.9% of cases (N = 1503 subjects) a psychological assessment was requested and in 15.7% of cases (N = 252) a psychiatric consultation. People reporting higher levels of perceived loneliness (OR 1.079, 95% CI 1.056-1.101, p < 0.001), practicing smart-working (OR 1.122, 95% CI 0.980-1.285, p = 0.095), using avoidant (OR 1.586, 95% CI 1.458-1.725, p < 0.001) and approach (OR 1.215, 95% CI 1.138-1.299, p < 0.001) coping strategies more frequently accessed mental health services. On the other hand, having higher levels of perceived social support (OR 0.833, 95% CI 0.795-0.873, p < 0.001) was associated with a reduced probability to access mental health services. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a new threat to the mental health and well-being of the general population, therefore specific strategies should be implemented to promote access to mental healthcare during the pandemic and afterwards.

7.
Brain Sci ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430781

ABSTRACT

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health are now well documented, however, few studies have been focused on the role of coping strategies and resilience in counterbalancing these detrimental effects. Data are derived from the COvid Mental hEalth Trial (COMET), a national multicentric trial carried out in the Italian general population. The final sample consisted of 20,720 participants, 53.1% (n = 11,000) of the sample reported low levels of resilience. Adaptive coping strategies and resilience levels did not have any significant protective impact on the levels of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Only self-distraction was a risk factor for poor mental health (Beta Coefficient, B = 0.1, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.003 to 0.267 for stress symptoms; B = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.077 to 0.324 for anxiety symptoms and B = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.105 to 0.382 for depressive symptoms). High levels of resilience were predicted by adaptive coping strategies, such as acceptance (B = 1.8, CI 95% = 1.4-2.7). Exposure to the different weeks of lockdown, being infected by COVID-19, and being a healthcare professional did not influence the levels of resilience. Our findings should be carefully considered, since the low levels of resilience may represent the missing link between the pandemic and the current increase in mental health problems.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 59-66, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe psychological and psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are expected, especially for people already vulnerable to biological or psychosocial stressors, including those with mental health problems. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with the loss of jobs and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we investigated whether mental illness was associated with a higher risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nineteen thousand four hundred ninety-six adults living in Italy were administered an online protocol including a sociodemographic checklist and questionnaires investigating suicide ideation and risk, mental health status and general distress (stress, anxiety, and depression), resilience, and perceived support. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred seventy-four reported having lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 5.4% of the sample reported a mental illness (mostly a depressive disorder). Unemployment was independently associated with mental illness, poor mental health, and depression. Mental illness was associated with the risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but not at the multivariate analyses. Those who lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic (compared to others) reported worse mental health and depression. LIMITATIONS: The presence of mental illness was self-reported by respondents and the administered measures were self-reported questionnaires affected by social desirability and other response bias. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation measures and lockdown used to contain its spread among the Italian population were associated with occupational insecurity, especially among the more vulnerable social categories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment
9.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 110: 110304, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410756

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present investigation aimed at evaluating differences in psychiatric hospitalizations in Italy during and after the lockdown due to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to the same periods in 2018 and 2019. METHODS: We obtained and analyzed anonymized data on psychiatric admissions (n = 4550) from 12 general hospital psychiatric wards (GHPWs) in different Italian regions (catchment area = 3.71 millions of inhabitants). Using a mixed-effects Poisson regression model, we compared admission characteristics across three periods: (a) March 1-June 30, 2018 and 2019; (b) March 1-April 30, 2020 (i.e., lockdown); and (c) May 1-June 30, 2020 (i.e., post-lockdown). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a 41% reduction (IRR = 0.59; p < 0.001, CI: 0.45-0.79) in psychiatric admissions in the enrolled GHPWs with respect to the 2018 and 2019 control period. Conversely, admission rates in the post-lockdown period were similar to those observed in the control period. Notably, a consistent and significant reduction in psychiatric hospitalizations of older patients (aged >65 years) was observed in the lockdown (40%; IRR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.44-0.82) and post-lockdown (28%; IRR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54-0.96) periods. Long-stay admissions (>14 days) increased (63%; IRR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.32-2.02) during the lockdown and decreased by 39% thereafter (IRR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.75). A significant 35% increase in patients reporting suicidal ideation was observed in the post-lockdown period, compared to the rate observed in the 2018 and 2019 control period (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with changes in the number of psychiatric admissions, particularly for older patients and long-stay hospitalizations. Increased admission of patients reporting suicidal ideation in the post-lockdown period merits special attention. Further studies are required to gain insight into the observed phenomena.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

11.
Psychiatry Res ; 303: 114072, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356405

ABSTRACT

There has been little research reported regarding both suicide ideation and suicide attempts during the COVID-19 pandemic and government lockdown restrictions in Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic. We investigated whether the frequency of suicide ideation and suicide attempts differed between psychiatric patients admitted to a psychiatric unit before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and government lockdown restrictions. We also assessed psychiatric diagnosis, length of hospitalization, and types of admission. We collected data on 632 psychiatric patients admitted to a public psychiatric clinic. Patients were divided into two different groups according to their admission before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results showed that only suicide attempts, but not suicide ideation, were more frequent in psychiatric patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic than before. Furthermore, mood disorder diagnoses were more frequent during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic. The types of admission and the mean length of hospitalization did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion the present study results adds consistent knowledge on the phenomenon of suicide during the challenging time of the pandemic, pointing to continuing effort in suicide prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted
13.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 20(1): 28, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219272

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, with about 880,000 dying annually for such a cause. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to severe social disruption both from health and economic standpoints. Law enforcement personnel have been significantly involved in helping to face the many difficulties due to the pandemic. Police officers have been subjected to further stress from managing social restrictions imposed by governments to contain the pandemic. The Italian State Police steadily approximate 100,000 people aged 25-65 years: 14 subjects (mean age 43.64 years) died by suicide in 2015, 7 (mean age 47.5 years) in 2016, 13 (mean age 45.62 years) in 2017, 10 (mean age 48.1 years) in 2018, 18 (mean age 46.78 years) in 2019, and 12 (mean age 52 years) in 2020. Our records excluded significant changes in suicide incidence rate within 2015-2020 (till December 2020). However, the COVID-19 pandemic spread faster in Italy than in other regions, meaning that the Italian State Police possibly faced prolonged, intense stress. Suicide prevention, therefore, remains a priority, especially during this difficult time.

17.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(4): 385-388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) to physical and mental disorders both directly and indirectly related to the pandemic. Italy was the first European country affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and Italian HCWs have presented adverse psychological outcomes related to work and emotional overload and the fears of becoming infected and infecting others, particularly loved ones. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 61-year-old HCW who likely infected her husband with SARS-CoV-2, leading to his death. We assessed the depressive and anxious symptoms that the patient experienced after the death of her husband, which were characterized by a deep sense of guilt, psychological pain, and thoughts of death. CONCLUSION: In our opinion, our case emphasizes the fact that HCWs need greater mental health assistance, particularly those who are heavily involved in the care of patients and who have possible risk factors for psychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Death , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Guilt , Health Personnel/psychology , Thinking , COVID-19/transmission , Depression/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Spouses/psychology
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 558, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pre-melancholic model described by Tellenbach may provide a common model for understanding the psychological implications of the lockdown. In this case report, we describe a rare catatonic status as a psychological implication linked to the COVID-19 pandemic, a really unique global situation. CASE PRESENTATION: B is a 59 year-old man with mute psychiatric anamnesis whose mother suffered from a major depressive disorder. As the lockdown began, he started to develop concerns about his family's economic condition. According to his wife, he could see no end to the epidemic and no future at all. Moving from this, he started to show a severe and rapidly progressive depression and to develop mood congruent delusions. In addition, he had increasing anhedonia, apathy, starvation and insomnia. This turned in the end into a catatonic-like state, along with a deep desire to die. Admitted to the psychiatry ward in a state of mutism, he was discharged after 15 days with a diagnosis of "Major depressive disorder, single severe episode with no psychotic behavior". He was treated with Sertraline, Olanzapine and Lorazepam. CONCLUSIONS: Our aim is to draw attention to the effect of the lockdown upon a Tellenbach-like personality structure. Identifying this type of pre-morbid personality structure could help clinicians understand and treat some cases of patients with severe major depressive disorders elicited by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Catatonia/etiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Physical Distancing , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Financial Stress , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
19.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(4): 246-250, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936523

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We performed a retrospective study from January to May 2020 to establish the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with mental health problems who arrived at an Italian emergency department during the COVID-19 outbreak. We divided the sample into two groups taking as a watershed March 11, when the World Health Organization announced COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. Chi-square/t-tests, adjusted p values (Bonferroni method), and regression analysis were performed. Patients who arrived at the emergency department during the lockdown decreased by 56%; showed greater active suicidal ideation, more tension, and more severe psychopathological state; were living alone more frequently; and were taking home treatment mainly based on second-generation antipsychotics. According to our study, it seems that patients with mental disorders have consulted psychiatric services less frequently during the pandemic, but the economic, health, and social distress may be linked with an increase in suicidal risk and the severity of the psychopathological state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/therapy , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicidal Ideation
20.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e87, 2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented traumatic event influencing the healthcare, economic, and social welfare systems worldwide. In order to slow the infection rates, lockdown has been implemented almost everywhere. Italy, one of the countries most severely affected, entered the "lockdown" on March 8, 2020. METHODS: The COvid Mental hEalth Trial (COMET) network includes 10 Italian university sites and the National Institute of Health. The whole study has three different phases. The first phase includes an online survey conducted between March and May 2020 in the Italian population. Recruitment took place through email invitation letters, social media, mailing lists of universities, national medical associations, and associations of stakeholders (e.g., associations of users/carers). In order to evaluate the impact of lockdown on depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, multivariate linear regression models were performed, weighted for the propensity score. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 20,720 participants. Among them, 12.4% of respondents (N = 2,555) reported severe or extremely severe levels of depressive symptoms, 17.6% (N = 3,627) of anxiety symptoms and 41.6% (N = 8,619) reported to feel at least moderately stressed by the situation at the DASS-21.According to the multivariate regression models, the depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms significantly worsened from the week April 9-15 to the week April 30 to May 4 (p < 0.0001). Moreover, female respondents and people with pre-existing mental health problems were at higher risk of developing severe depression and anxiety symptoms (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although physical isolation and lockdown represent essential public health measures for containing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, they are a serious threat for mental health and well-being of the general population. As an integral part of COVID-19 response, mental health needs should be addressed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
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