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2.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(3): 338-345, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722178

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev Invest Clin ; 73(5): 329-334, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702274

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in Wuhan, China, this virus and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has spread worldwide. What has occurred in this year and a half goes beyond anything we have dealt with, as humankind, in the past two centuries, perhaps obscured only by war. An incredible number of articles, whether scientific or in the press, have been published, making it impossible to discern between what is biological and what is social in nature. Here, we aim to reflect on the basic structure of the virus and associate its behavior to that of determining factors of the human condition that may be modifiable soon. Needless to say, we find our effort clearly incomplete, and that both scientific and social aspects regarding COVID-19 or any other pandemic encountered in the future, will be constantly changing, from their beginning to their end.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Front Nutr ; 9: 813485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690418

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with susceptibility to infectious disease. In this study, the association between COVID-19 outcomes and vitamin D levels in patients attending a COVID-19 reference center in Mexico City are examined. METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 were evaluated. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and follow-up, laboratory measurements and a thoracic computerized tomography, including the measurement of epicardial fat thickness. Low vitamin D was defined as levels <20 ng/ml (<50nmol/L) and deficient Vitamin D as a level ≤12 ng/ml (<30 nmol/L). RESULTS: Of the 551 patients included, low vitamin D levels were present in 45.6% and deficient levels in 10.9%. Deficient Vitamin D levels were associated with mortality (HR 2.11, 95%CI 1.24-3.58, p = 0.006) but not with critical COVID-19, adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index and epicardial fat. Using model-based causal mediation analyses the increased risk of COVID-19 mortality conferred by low vitamin D levels was partly mediated by its effect on D-dimer and cardiac ultrasensitive troponins. Notably, increased risk of COVID-19 mortality conferred by low vitamin D levels was independent of BMI and epicardial fat. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency (≤12 ng/ml or <30 nmol/L), is independently associated with COVID-19 mortality after adjustment for visceral fat (epicardial fat thickness). Low vitamin D may contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state, increasing the risk for adverse COVID-19 outcomes.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318556

ABSTRACT

We identified the main changes in serum metabolites associated with severe (n=46) and mild (n=19) COVID-19 patients by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The modified metabolic profiles were associated to an altered amino acid catabolism in hypoxic conditions. Noteworthy, three ?-hydroxyl acids of amino acid origin increased with disease severity and correlated with altered oxygen saturation levels and clinical markers of lung damage. We hypothesize that the enzymatic conversion of ?-keto-acids to ?- hydroxyl-acids helps to maintain NAD recycling in patients with altered oxygen levels, highlighting the potential relevance of amino acid supplementation during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
Rev Invest Clin ; 74(1): 40-50, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trials evaluating safety and efficacy of tocilizumab in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) show contradictory results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab in hospital mortality among patients with severe COVID-19 in a third-level medical center. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients with severe and critical COVID-19. Primary outcome was death during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), days on IMV, ventilator-free days (VFDs), length of hospital stay (LOS), and development of hospitalacquired infections (HAIs). Bivariate, multivariate, and propensity score matching analysis were performed. RESULTS: During the study period, 99/794 (12%) patients received tocilizumab. Male patients, health care workers, and patients with increased inflammatory markers received tocilizumab more frequently. No difference in hospital mortality was observed between groups (34% vs. 34%, p = 0.98). Tocilizumab was not independently associated with mortality. No significant treatment effects were observed in propensity score analysis. IMV was more frequent (46% vs. 11%, p < 0.01) and LOS was longer (12 vs. 7 days, p < 0.01) in the tocilizumab group, reflecting increased severity. Although HAIs were more frequent in the tocilizumab group (22% vs. 10%, p < 0.01), no difference was seen after adjusting for IMV (38% vs. 40%, p = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, tocilizumab was not associated with decreased hospital mortality among patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Infection , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(5): 1355-1362, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681733

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a worldwide health challenge. Liver steatosis diagnosis based on imaging studies has been implicated in poor outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia, but results are inconsistent. The Dallas Steatosis Index (DSI) is an available calculator developed to identify patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that it would be associated with in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admission (ICU), and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). We conducted a retrospective cohort study on inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia between February 26 and April 11, 2020. We computed the DSI on admission, and patients with high DSI were considered with NAFLD. We employed logistic regression to study the association between NAFLD, mortality, ICU admission, and IMV. We studied the association between liver steatosis on computed tomography (CT) and these outcomes, and also between Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) based on CT findings and risk factors and the outcomes. 470 patients were included; 359 had NAFLD according to the DSI. They had a higher frequency of type 2 diabetes (31% vs 14%, p < 0.001), obesity (58% vs 14%, p < 0.001), and arterial hypertension (34% vs 22%, p = 0.02). In univariable analysis, NAFLD was associated with mortality, ICU admission, and IMV. Liver steatosis by CT and MAFLD were not associated with any of these outcomes. In multivariable logistic regression, high DSI remained significantly associated with IMV and death. High DSI, which can be easily computed on admission, was associated with IMV and death, and its use to better stratify the prognosis of these patients should be explored. On the other hand, liver steatosis by CT and MAFLD were not associated with poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Retrospective Studies
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0201521, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622005

ABSTRACT

Emergency department areas were repurposed as intensive care units (ICUs) for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We describe an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing Escherichia coli infections in critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to one of the repurposed units. Seven patients developed infections (6 ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP] and 1 urinary tract infection [UTI]) due to carbapenem-resistant E. coli, and only two survived. Five of the affected patients and four additional patients had rectal carriage of carbapenem-resistant E. coli. The E. coli strain from the affected patients corresponded to a single sequence type. Rectal screening identified isolates of two other sequence types bearing blaNDM-1. Isolates of all three sequence types harbored an IncFII plasmid. The plasmid was confirmed to carry blaNDM-1 through conjugation. An outbreak of clonal NDM-1-producing E. coli isolates and subsequent dissemination of NDM-1 through mobile elements to other E. coli strains occurred after hospital conversion during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This emphasizes the need for infection control practices in surge scenarios. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in a surge of critically ill patients. Hospitals have had to adapt to the demand by repurposing areas as intensive care units. This has resulted in high workload and disruption of usual hospital workflows. Surge capacity guidelines and pandemic response plans do not contemplate how to limit collateral damage from issues like hospital-acquired infections. It is vital to ensure quality of care in surge scenarios.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Conjugation, Genetic , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Plasmids/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , beta-Lactamases/genetics
9.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(1): 4-14, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colchicine is an available, safe, and effective anti-inflammatory drug and has been suggested as a COVID-19 treatment, but its usefulness in hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients has not been thoroughly demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To address the safety and efficacy of colchicine in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. DESIGN: We conducted a triple-blind parallel non-stratified placebo-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 116 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 in Mexico. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to receive 1.5 mg of colchicine or placebo at the time of the recruitment in the study (baseline) and 0.5 mg BID PO to complete 10 days of treatment. MAIN MEASURES: The primary composite outcome was the progression to critical disease or death. Besides, we evaluated immunological features at baseline and after recovery or disease progression in 20 patients. KEY RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were allocated to colchicine and 60 patients received placebo. The study was suspended after the second interim analysis demonstrated colchicine had no effect on the primary outcome (OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.35-1.93, P = 0.67), nor in the days of ICU and hospital stays. Adverse events were similar between groups (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.66-3.88, P = 0.37). After colchicine treatment, patients had higher BUN and lower serum levels of IL-8, IL-12p70, and IL-17A. CONCLUSIONS: Colchicine is safe but not effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04367168.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(3): 338-345, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555726

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 50-59, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541487

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone implementation for COVID-19 management represented a milestone but data regarding its impact and safety have not been consistently reproduced. We aimed to evaluate in-hospital mortality before and after the implementation of corticosteroid treatment (CS-T) for severe and critical COVID-19. We conducted a cohort study that included patients admitted with severe and critical COVID-19. The primary outcome was death during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included the length of stay (LOS), need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), time to IMV initiation, IMV duration, and development of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Bivariate, multivariate, and propensity-score matching analysis were performed. Among 1540 patients, 688 (45%) received CS-T. Death was less frequent in the CS-T group (18 vs 31%, p < .01). Among patients on IMV, death was also less frequent in the CS-T group (25 vs 55%, p < .01). The median time to IMV was longer in the CS-T group (5 vs 3 days, p < .01). HAIs occurred more frequently in the CS-T group (20 vs 10%, p < .01). LOS, IMV, and IMV duration were similar between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association between CS-T and lower mortality (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36, p < .001). Propensity-score matching analysis revealed that CS-T was independently associated with lower mortality (aOR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.50, p < .01). Treatment with corticosteroids was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality among patients with severe and critical COVID-19, including those on IMV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Disease Management , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
12.
Rev Invest Clin ; 73(5): 329-334, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504575

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in Wuhan, China, this virus and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has spread worldwide. What has occurred in this year and a half goes beyond anything we have dealt with, as humankind, in the past two centuries, perhaps obscured only by war. An incredible number of articles, whether scientific or in the press, have been published, making it impossible to discern between what is biological and what is social in nature. Here, we aim to reflect on the basic structure of the virus and associate its behavior to that of determining factors of the human condition that may be modifiable soon. Needless to say, we find our effort clearly incomplete, and that both scientific and social aspects regarding COVID-19 or any other pandemic encountered in the future, will be constantly changing, from their beginning to their end.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1365-1376, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional impairment of interferon, a natural antiviral component of the immune system, is associated with the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. We aimed to compare the efficacy of interferon beta-1a in combination with remdesivir compared with remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 63 hospitals across five countries (Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, and the USA). Eligible patients were hospitalised adults (aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by a positive RT-PCR test, and who met one of the following criteria suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection: the presence of radiographic infiltrates on imaging, a peripheral oxygen saturation on room air of 94% or less, or requiring supplemental oxygen. Patients were excluded if they had either an alanine aminotransferase or an aspartate aminotransferase concentration more than five times the upper limit of normal; had impaired renal function; were allergic to the study product; were pregnant or breast feeding; were already on mechanical ventilation; or were anticipating discharge from the hospital or transfer to another hospital within 72 h of enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous remdesivir as a 200 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by a 100 mg maintenance dose administered daily for up to 9 days and up to four doses of either 44 µg interferon beta-1a (interferon beta-1a group plus remdesivir group) or placebo (placebo plus remdesivir group) administered subcutaneously every other day. Randomisation was stratified by study site and disease severity at enrolment. Patients, investigators, and site staff were masked to interferon beta-1a and placebo treatment; remdesivir treatment was given to all patients without masking. The primary outcome was time to recovery, defined as the first day that a patient attained a category 1, 2, or 3 score on the eight-category ordinal scale within 28 days, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all randomised patients who were classified according to actual clinical severity. Safety was assessed in the as-treated population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04492475. FINDINGS: Between Aug 5, 2020, and Nov 11, 2020, 969 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (n=487) or to the placebo plus remdesivir group (n=482). The mean duration of symptoms before enrolment was 8·7 days (SD 4·4) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 8·5 days (SD 4·3) days in the placebo plus remdesivir group. Patients in both groups had a time to recovery of 5 days (95% CI not estimable) (rate ratio of interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group vs placebo plus remdesivir 0·99 [95% CI 0·87-1·13]; p=0·88). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mortality at 28 days was 5% (95% CI 3-7%) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 3% (2-6%) in the placebo plus remdesivir group (hazard ratio 1·33 [95% CI 0·69-2·55]; p=0·39). Patients who did not require high-flow oxygen at baseline were more likely to have at least one related adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (33 [7%] of 442 patients) than in the placebo plus remdesivir group (15 [3%] of 435). In patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline, 24 (69%) of 35 had an adverse event and 21 (60%) had a serious adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group compared with 13 (39%) of 33 who had an adverse event and eight (24%) who had a serious adverse event in the placebo plus remdesivir group. INTERPRETATION: Interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir was not superior to remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline had worse outcomes after treatment with interferon beta-1a compared with those given placebo. FUNDING: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (USA).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Oxygen Saturation , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Treatment Outcome , United States
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689966, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441106

ABSTRACT

Background: Most of the explanatory and prognostic models of COVID-19 lack of a comprehensive assessment of the wide COVID-19 spectrum of abnormalities. The aim of this study was to unveil novel biological features to explain COVID-19 severity and prognosis (death and disease progression). Methods: A predictive model for COVID-19 severity in 121 patients was constructed by ordinal logistic regression calculating odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for a set of clinical, immunological, metabolomic, and other biological traits. The accuracy and calibration of the model was tested with the area under the curve (AUC), Somer's D, and calibration plot. Hazard ratios with 95% CI for adverse outcomes were calculated with a Cox proportional-hazards model. Results: The explanatory variables for COVID-19 severity were the body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, albumin, 3-Hydroxyisovaleric acid, CD8+ effector memory T cells, Th1 cells, low-density granulocytes, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasma TRIM63, and circulating neutrophil extracellular traps. The model showed an outstanding performance with an optimism-adjusted AUC of 0.999, and Somer's D of 0.999. The predictive variables for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 were severe and critical disease diagnosis, BMI, lactate dehydrogenase, Troponin I, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum levels of IP-10, malic acid, 3, 4 di-hydroxybutanoic acid, citric acid, myoinositol, and cystine. Conclusions: Herein, we unveil novel immunological and metabolomic features associated with COVID-19 severity and prognosis. Our models encompass the interplay among innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation-induced muscle atrophy and hypoxia as the main drivers of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Blood Coagulation , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Metabolome , Middle Aged , Muscular Atrophy , Neutrophils/immunology , Phenotype , Prognosis , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Valerates/blood
15.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 33: 32-37, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324275

ABSTRACT

We describe two fatal cases of COVID-19 in which Rhizopus microsporus and Lichtheimia corymbifera were cultured from endotracheal aspirate samples. Both patients had no underlying comorbidities other than obesity. Despite antifungal therapy, both cases developed septic shock and progressive refractory hypoxemia without evidence of other underlying infections. It is unclear whether isolation of these fungal organisms represents invasive disease or corresponds to an epiphenomenon of critical illness. Yet, patients suffering from COVID-19 may be at risk of superinfection from a broader range of fungal organisms than previously thought.

16.
Rev Invest Clin ; 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are important adverse events that must be prevented. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to report and study possible changes in HAI rates as well as their causes after the COVID-19 hospital surge capacity response (HSCR) in an academic referral center. METHODS: This was a before-after observational study. The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) program (prospective surveillance, prevention bundles, antibiotic stewardship, continuing education, and feedback) was transiently disrupted after the start of HSCR (March 2020). HAI rates were compared before (January 2019-February 2020) and after (April-July 2020) HSCR, and plausible predisposing factors in affected patients were compared. RESULTS: An increase in the HAI rate from 6.2 to 11.8 cases/1000 patient-days was noted between periods due to increases in ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infection (BSI) rates. More critically ill patients were admitted during HSCR, and use of invasive devices increased. Prone positioning and infusion of muscle relaxants became commonplace. The nurse-to-patient ratio in the intensive care unit decreased, and 4 h shifts were introduced to avoid fatigue. The BSI rate decreased after the IPC program with additional measures was reintroduced in May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The strain on the workforce and modifications to the IPC program very possibly underlay the findings. IPC programs continue to be essential during the pandemic.

17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(4): 513-517, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213891

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) not fulfilling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case definition underwent severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening. Risk of exposure, adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), and symptoms were assessed. In total, 2,000 HCWs were screened: 5.5% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no differences in PPE use between SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative HCWs (adherence, >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Rev Invest Clin ; 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) asymptomatic carriage (AC) in healthcare workers (HCWs) have been scarcely characterized. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to study factors associated with COVID-19 and AC in HCWs of a COVID-19 academic medical center. METHODS: This is a case-control study. Cases were either symptomatic or asymptomatic HCWs with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result between March 16 and May 21 of 2020. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated by means of multivariable logistic regression. In addition, each subject was followed for 14 days to inform outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred thirty of 249 (52.2%) symptomatic HCWs had COVID-19; 10 were hospitalized but none died. Of 987 asymptomatic HCWs,37 (3.7%) were AC; 6 of the remaining 950 asymptomatic HCWs with a negative PCR test result were found to be presymptomatic COVID-19 cases the following 14 days. Nurses were more frequently present in the COVID-19 group (51.5% vs. 37.0%), but multivariable analysis rendered non-significant results. After adjustment for age, comorbidities, and working place, factors found to be associated with AC were: working in wards as a nurse (aOR = 9.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-80.22, p = 0.045), kitchen personnel (aOR = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.55-10.83, p = 0.005), and being a physician (aOR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.03-0.54, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: HCW category was the predominant factor associated with AC of SARS-CoV-2 in this study.

19.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(5): 413-418, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia has been related to negative outcomes in different clinical scenarios from critical illness to chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether there was an association between low skeletal muscle index and in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation need in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of a referral center for COVID-19. We included all consecutive patients admitted to the hospital between February 26 and May 15, 2020, with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Skeletal muscle index was assessed from a transverse computed tomography image at the level of twelfth thoracic vertebra with National Institutes of Health ImageJ software, and statistical analysis was performed to find an association between skeletal muscle index and in-hospital mortality, need of invasive mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: We included 519 patients, the median age was 51 (42-61) yrs, and 115 patients (22%) had low skeletal muscle index. On multivariable analysis, skeletal muscle index was not associated with mortality, intensive care unit admission, or invasive mechanical ventilation need nor in a subanalysis of patients 65 yrs or older. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle index determined by computed tomography at the level of twelfth thoracic vertebra was not associated with negative outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Sarcopenia/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6350, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142464

ABSTRACT

We identified the main changes in serum metabolites associated with severe (n = 46) and mild (n = 19) COVID-19 patients by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The modified metabolic profiles were associated to an altered amino acid catabolism in hypoxic conditions. Noteworthy, three α-hydroxyl acids of amino acid origin increased with disease severity and correlated with altered oxygen saturation levels and clinical markers of lung damage. We hypothesize that the enzymatic conversion of α-keto-acids to α- hydroxyl-acids helps to maintain NAD recycling in patients with altered oxygen levels, highlighting the potential relevance of amino acid supplementation during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/metabolism
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