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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0261045, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896433

ABSTRACT

As novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with different patterns of spike protein mutations have emerged, the susceptibility of these variants to neutralization by antibodies has been rapidly assessed. However, neutralization data are generated using different approaches and are scattered across different publications making it difficult for these data to be located and synthesized. The Stanford Coronavirus Resistance Database (CoV-RDB; https://covdb.stanford.edu) is designed to house comprehensively curated published data on the neutralizing susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants and spike mutations to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), convalescent plasma (CP), and vaccinee plasma (VP). As of December 31, 2021, CoV-RDB encompassed 257 publications including 91 (35%) containing 9,070 neutralizing mAb susceptibility results, 131 (51%) containing 16,773 neutralizing CP susceptibility results, and 178 (69%) containing 33,540 neutralizing VP results. The database also records which spike mutations are selected during in vitro passage of SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of mAbs and which emerge in persons receiving mAbs as treatment. The CoV-RDB interface interactively displays neutralizing susceptibility data at different levels of granularity by filtering and/or aggregating query results according to one or more experimental conditions. The CoV-RDB website provides a companion sequence analysis program that outputs information about mutations present in a submitted sequence and that also assists users in determining the appropriate mutation-detection thresholds for identifying non-consensus amino acids. The most recent data underlying the CoV-RDB can be downloaded in its entirety from a GitHub repository in a documented machine-readable format.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822442

ABSTRACT

A canine coronavirus (CCoV) has now been reported from two independent human samples from Malaysia (respiratory, collected in 2017-2018; CCoV-HuPn-2018) and Haiti (urine, collected in 2017); these two viruses were nearly genetically identical. In an effort to identify any novel adaptations associated with this apparent shift in tropism we carried out detailed evolutionary analyses of the spike gene of this virus in the context of related Alphacoronavirus 1 species. The spike 0-domain retains homology to CCoV2b (enteric infections) and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV; enteric and respiratory). This domain is subject to relaxed selection pressure and an increased rate of molecular evolution. It contains unique amino acid substitutions, including within a region important for sialic acid binding and pathogenesis in TGEV. Overall, the spike gene is extensively recombinant, with a feline coronavirus type II strain serving a prominent role in the recombinant history of the virus. Molecular divergence time for a segment of the gene where temporal signal could be determined, was estimated at around 60 years ago. We hypothesize that the virus had an enteric origin, but that it may be losing that particular tropism, possibly because of mutations in the sialic acid binding region of the spike 0-domain.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Canine , Animals , Cats , Dogs , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tropism , Zoonoses
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745703

ABSTRACT

Two years after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, key questions about the emergence of its aetiological agent (SARS-CoV-2) remain a matter of considerable debate. Identifying when SARS-CoV-2 began spreading among people is one of those questions. Although the current canonically accepted timeline hypothesises viral emergence in Wuhan, China, in November or December 2019, a growing body of diverse studies provides evidence that the virus may have been spreading worldwide weeks, or even months, prior to that time. However, the hypothesis of earlier SARS-CoV-2 circulation is often dismissed with prejudicial scepticism and experimental studies pointing to early origins are frequently and speculatively attributed to false-positive tests. In this paper, we critically review current evidence that SARS-CoV-2 had been circulating prior to December of 2019, and emphasise how, despite some scientific limitations, this hypothesis should no longer be ignored and considered sufficient to warrant further larger-scale studies to determine its veracity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
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