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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in a severe pneumonia associated with elevation of blood inflammatory parameters, reminiscent of cytokine storm syndrome. Steroidal anti-inflammatory therapies have shown efficacy in reducing mortality in critically ill patients; however, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers such an extensive inflammation remain unexplained. OBJECTIVES: To dissect the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we studied the role of IL-1ß, a pivotal cytokine driving inflammatory phenotypes, whose maturation and secretion are regulated by inflammasomes. METHODS: We analyzed nod-like receptor protein 3 pathway activation by means of confocal microscopy, plasma cytokine measurement, cytokine secretion following in vitro stimulation of blood circulating monocytes, and whole-blood RNA sequencing. The role of open reading frame 3a SARS-CoV-2 protein was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis following nucleofection of a monocytic cell line. RESULTS: We found that circulating monocytes from patients with COVID-19 display ASC (adaptor molecule apoptotic speck like protein-containing a CARD) specks that colocalize with nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and spontaneously secrete IL-1ß in vitro. This spontaneous activation reverts following patient's treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Transfection of a monocytic cell line with cDNA coding for the ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 protein resulted in ASC speck formation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence that IL-1ß targeting could represent an effective strategy in this disease and suggest a mechanistic explanation for the strong inflammatory manifestations associated with COVID-19.

3.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885617

ABSTRACT

Currently, tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 account for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, not only during their acute phase, but also because of their sequelae. This scoping review aims to describe the specific aspects of post-TB and post-COVID (long-COVID-19) sequelae, and the implications for post-disease follow-up and rehabilitation. In particular, evidence on how to identify patients affected by sequelae is presented and discussed. A section of the review is dedicated to identifying patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), as not all patients with sequelae are eligible for PR. Components of PR are presented and discussed, as well as their effectiveness. Other essential components to implement comprehensive rehabilitation programmes such as counselling and health education of enrolled patients, evaluation of cost-effectiveness of PR and its impact on health systems as well as research priorities for the future are included in this scoping review.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518590

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) does not respect borders, and migration confounds global TB control and elimination. Systematic screening of immigrants from TB high burden settings and-to a lesser degree TB infection (TBI)-is recommended in most countries with a low incidence of TB. The aim of the study was to evaluate the views of a diverse group of international health professionals on TB management among migrants. Participants expressed their level of agreement using a six-point Likert scale with different statements in an online survey available in English, French, Mandarin, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian. The survey consisted of eight sections, covering TB and TBI screening and treatment in migrants. A total of 1055 respondents from 80 countries and territories participated between November 2019 and April 2020. The largest professional groups were pulmonologists (16.8%), other clinicians (30.4%), and nurses (11.8%). Participants generally supported infection control and TB surveillance established practices (administrative interventions, personal protection, etc.), while they disagreed on how to diagnose and manage both TB and TBI, particularly on which TBI regimens to use and when patients should be hospitalised. The results of this first knowledge, attitude and practice study on TB screening and treatment in migrants will inform public health policy and educational resources.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy was the first western country to face an uncontrolled outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The epidemic began in March 2020 within a context characterised by a general lack of knowledge about the disease. The first scientific evidence emerged months later, leading to treatment changes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of these changes. METHODS: Data from a hospital in Genoa, Italy, were analysed. Patients deceased from SARS-CoV-2 infection were selected. Data were compared by dividing patients into two cohorts: "phase A" (March-May 2020) and "phase B" (October-December 2020). RESULTS: A total of 5142 patients were admitted. There were 274 SARS-CoV-2-related deaths (162 phase A and 112 phase B). No differences were observed in terms of demographics, presentation, or comorbidities. A significant increase was recorded in corticosteroid use. Mortality was 33.36% during phase A, falling to 21.71% during phase B. When subdividing the trend during the two phases by age, we found a difference in people aged 65-74 years. CONCLUSIONS: There is scarce evidence regarding treatment for SARS-CoV-2 (especially for severe infection). However, treatment changes improved the prognosis for people under the age of 75. The prognosis for older people remains poor, despite the improvements achieved.

6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e690-e697, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anakinra might improve the prognosis of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (ie, patients requiring oxygen supplementation but not yet receiving organ support). We aimed to assess the effect of anakinra treatment on mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: For this systematic review and individual patient-level meta-analysis, a systematic literature search was done on Dec 28, 2020, in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases for randomised trials, comparative studies, and observational studies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, comparing administration of anakinra with standard of care, or placebo, or both. The search was repeated on Jan 22, 2021. Individual patient-level data were requested from investigators and corresponding authors of eligible studies; if individual patient-level data were not available, published data were extracted from the original reports. The primary endpoint was mortality after 28 days and the secondary endpoint was safety (eg, the risk of secondary infections). This study is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221491). FINDINGS: 209 articles were identified, of which 178 full-text articles fulfilled screening criteria and were assessed. Aggregate data on 1185 patients from nine studies were analysed, and individual patient-level data on 895 patients were provided from six of these studies. Eight studies were observational and one was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies used historical controls. In the individual patient-level meta-analysis, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, baseline ratio of the arterial partial oxygen pressure divided by the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and lymphopenia, mortality was significantly lower in patients treated with anakinra (38 [11%] of 342) than in those receiving standard of care with or without placebo (137 [25%] of 553; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·20-0·51]). The mortality benefit was similar across subgroups regardless of comorbidities (ie, diabetes), ferritin concentrations, or the baseline PaO2/FiO2. In a subgroup analysis, anakinra was more effective in lowering mortality in patients with CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L (OR 0·28 [95% CI 0·17-0·47]). Anakinra showed a significant survival benefit when given without dexamethasone (OR 0·23 [95% CI 0·12-0·43]), but not with dexamethasone co-administration (0·72 [95% CI 0·37-1·41]). Anakinra was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary infections when compared with standard of care (OR 1·35 [95% CI 0·59-3·10]). INTERPRETATION: Anakinra could be a safe, anti-inflammatory treatment option to reduce the mortality risk in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the presence of signs of hyperinflammation such as CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L. FUNDING: Sobi.

7.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 662-665, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338290

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a peripheral nervous system disease caused by an immune-mediated inflammatory mechanism, usually triggered by a previous infectious process or vaccine; its typical presentation is a rapid and progressive bilateral limb hyposthenia, associated with sensory deficits and reduction or absence of osteotendinous reflexes. However, also autonomic nervous system can be involved with heart rate fluctuations, blood pressure instability, pupillary dysfunction, and urinary retention. Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, GBS has been reported among neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection, although etiopathological mechanisms still have to be clearly defined. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with multiple comorbidities, including diabetes, who was affected by SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia and developed dysautonomic symptoms after 10 days of hospitalization. A neurological evaluation was performed, and GBS was considered as a possible cause of the clinical manifestations. This hypothesis was confirmed by electrophysiological study and further supported, ex-juvantibus, by the satisfactory response to immunoglobulin treatment. In our opinion, this case of pure dysautonomic presentation of GBS in a SARS-CoV-2 positive patient is relevant because it suggests to consider GBS upon SARS-CoV-2 infection even if the symptoms have uncommon characteristics (e.g., pure vegetative manifestations) and if there are confounding factors which could lead to a misdiagnosis (e.g., old age, SARS-CoV-2 infection consequences and diabetes).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Primary Dysautonomias/virology , Aged , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Male , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 572485, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186815

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving, highly transmissible, and potentially lethal pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of June 11 2020, more than 7,000,000 COVID-19 cases have been reported worldwide, and more than 400,000 patients have died, affecting at least 188 countries. While literature on the disease is rapidly accumulating, an integrated, multinational perspective on clinical manifestations, immunological effects, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19 can be of global benefit. We aimed to synthesize the most relevant literature and experiences in different parts of the world through our global consortium of experts to provide a consensus-based document at this early stage of the pandemic.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(4): 1217-1225, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: IL-1 plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response during cytokine storm syndromes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of early anti-inflammatory treatment (AIT) with intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia from February 26 to April 29, 2020, to assess the efficacy of early AIT with intravenous anakinra (100 mg every 8 hours for 3 days, with tapering) alone or in combination with a glucocorticoid (intravenous methylprednisolone, 1-2 mg/kg daily, with tapering). The standard of care (SOC) treatment was hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants. Late rescue AIT with anakinra or tocilizumab was also evaluated. Treatment effect on overall survival was assessed by a propensity score-adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients were analyzed; 63 patients received early AIT (30 received anakinra alone and 33 received anakinra plus a glucocorticoid) at admission, and 65 patients did not receive early AIT and were used as controls; of the latter 65 patients, 44 received the SOC treatment alone and 21 received the SOC treatment plus late rescue AIT. After adjustment for all the unbalanced baseline covariates, early AIT reduced the hazard of mortality by 74% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26; P < .001). The effect was similar in patients receiving anakinra alone (adjusted HR = 0.28; P = .04) and anakinra plus a glucocorticoid (adjusted HR = 0.33; P = .07). Late rescue treatment did not show a significant advantage over SOC treatment alone (adjusted HR = 0.82; P = .70). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests, on a larger series of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the potential efficacy and safety of the early use of high doses of intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Pulmonology ; 27(3): 248-256, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051921

ABSTRACT

The scientific debate on the criteria guiding hospitalization of tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 patients is ongoing. The aim of this review is to present the available evidence on admission for TB and TB/COVID-19 patients and discuss the criteria guiding hospitalization. Furthermore, recommendations are made as derived from recently published World Health Organization documents, based on Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN) expert opinion. The core published documents and guidelines on the topic have been reviewed. The proportion of new TB cases admitted to hospital ranges between 50% and 100% while for multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB patients it ranges between 85 and 100% globally. For TB patients with COVID-19 the proportion of cases admitted is 58%, probably reflecting different scenarios related to the diagnosis of COVID-19 before, after or at the same time of the active TB episode. The hospital length of stay for drug-susceptible TB ranges from 20 to 60 days in most of countries, ranging from a mean of 10 days (USA) to around 90 days in the Russian Federation. Hospitalization is longer for MDR-TB (50-180 days). The most frequently stated reasons for recommending hospital admission include: severe TB, infection control concerns, co-morbidities and drug adverse events which cannot be managed at out-patient level. The review also provides suggestions on hospital requirements for safe admissions as well as patient discharge criteria, while underlining the relevance of patient-centred care through community/home-based care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/therapy , Consensus , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890060

ABSTRACT

Major epidemics, including some that qualify as pandemics, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), HIV, influenza A (H1N1)pdm/09 and most recently COVID-19, affect the lung. Tuberculosis (TB) remains the top infectious disease killer, but apart from syndemic TB/HIV little is known regarding the interaction of viral epidemics and pandemics with TB. The aim of this consensus-based document is to describe the effects of viral infections resulting in epidemics and pandemics that affect the lung (MERS, SARS, HIV, influenza A (H1N1)pdm/09 and COVID-19) and their interactions with TB. A search of the scientific literature was performed. A writing committee of international experts including the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Public Health Emergency (ECDC PHE) team, the World Association for Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders (WAidid), the Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN), and members of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Mycobacterial Infections (ESGMYC) was established. Consensus was achieved after multiple rounds of revisions between the writing committee and a larger expert group. A Delphi process involving the core group of authors (excluding the ECDC PHE team) identified the areas requiring review/consensus, followed by a second round to refine the definitive consensus elements. The epidemiology and immunology of these viral infections and their interactions with TB are discussed with implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of airborne infections (infection control, viral containment and workplace safety). This consensus document represents a rapid and comprehensive summary on what is known on the topic.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epidemics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology
13.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 4(1): 39, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) enables quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, helping in outcome prediction. METHODS: From 1 to 22 March 2020, patients with pneumonia symptoms, positive lung CT scan, and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical data was collected. Outcome was defined as favourable or adverse (i.e., need for mechanical ventilation or death) and registered over a period of 10 days following CT. Volume of disease (VoD) on CT was calculated semi-automatically. Multiple linear regression was used to predict VoD by clinical/laboratory data. To predict outcome, important features were selected using a priori analysis and subsequently used to train 4 different models. RESULTS: A total of 106 consecutive patients were enrolled (median age 63.5 years, range 26-95 years; 41/106 women, 38.7%). Median duration of symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP) was 5 days (range 1-30) and 4.94 mg/L (range 0.1-28.3), respectively. Median VoD was 249.5 cm3 (range 9.9-1505) and was predicted by lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.008) and CRP (p < 0.001). Important variables for outcome prediction included CRP (area under the curve [AUC] 0.77), VoD (AUC 0.75), age (AUC 0.72), lymphocyte percentage (AUC 0.70), coronary calcification (AUC 0.68), and presence of comorbidities (AUC 0.66). Support vector machine had the best performance in outcome prediction, yielding an AUC of 0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring the VoD using a simple CT post-processing tool estimates SARS-CoV-2 burden. CT and clinical data together enable accurate prediction of short-term clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
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