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1.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 9(5): 054001, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019653

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Quantitative lung measures derived from computed tomography (CT) have been demonstrated to improve prognostication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients but are not part of clinical routine because the required manual segmentation of lung lesions is prohibitively time consuming. We aim to automatically segment ground-glass opacities and high opacities (comprising consolidation and pleural effusion). Approach: We propose a new fully automated deep-learning framework for fast multi-class segmentation of lung lesions in COVID-19 pneumonia from both contrast and non-contrast CT images using convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM) networks. Utilizing the expert annotations, model training was performed using five-fold cross-validation to segment COVID-19 lesions. The performance of the method was evaluated on CT datasets from 197 patients with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test result for SARS-CoV-2, 68 unseen test cases, and 695 independent controls. Results: Strong agreement between expert manual and automatic segmentation was obtained for lung lesions with a Dice score of 0.89 ± 0.07 ; excellent correlations of 0.93 and 0.98 for ground-glass opacity (GGO) and high opacity volumes, respectively, were obtained. In the external testing set of 68 patients, we observed a Dice score of 0.89 ± 0.06 as well as excellent correlations of 0.99 and 0.98 for GGO and high opacity volumes, respectively. Computations for a CT scan comprising 120 slices were performed under 3 s on a computer equipped with an NVIDIA TITAN RTX GPU. Diagnostically, the automated quantification of the lung burden % discriminate COVID-19 patients from controls with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.96 (0.95-0.98). Conclusions: Our method allows for the rapid fully automated quantitative measurement of the pneumonia burden from CT, which can be used to rapidly assess the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia on chest CT.

2.
Radiol Med ; 127(9): 960-972, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014406

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop and validate an effective and user-friendly AI platform based on a few unbiased clinical variables integrated with advanced CT automatic analysis for COVID-19 patients' risk stratification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 1575 consecutive COVID-19 adults admitted to 16 hospitals during wave 1 (February 16-April 29, 2020), submitted to chest CT within 72 h from admission, were retrospectively enrolled. In total, 107 variables were initially collected; 64 extracted from CT. The outcome was survival. A rigorous AI model selection framework was adopted for models selection and automatic CT data extraction. Model performances were compared in terms of AUC. A web-mobile interface was developed using Microsoft PowerApps environment. The platform was externally validated on 213 COVID-19 adults prospectively enrolled during wave 2 (October 14-December 31, 2020). RESULTS: The final cohort included 1125 patients (292 non-survivors, 26%) and 24 variables. Logistic showed the best performance on the complete set of variables (AUC = 0.839 ± 0.009) as in models including a limited set of 13 and 5 variables (AUC = 0.840 ± 0.0093 and AUC = 0.834 ± 0.007). For non-inferior performance, the 5 variables model (age, sex, saturation, well-aerated lung parenchyma and cardiothoracic vascular calcium) was selected as the final model and the extraction of CT-derived parameters was fully automatized. The fully automatic model showed AUC = 0.842 (95% CI: 0.816-0.867) on wave 1 and was used to build a 0-100 scale risk score (AI-SCoRE). The predictive performance was confirmed on wave 2 (AUC 0.808; 95% CI: 0.7402-0.8766). CONCLUSIONS: AI-SCoRE is an effective and reliable platform for automatic risk stratification of COVID-19 patients based on a few unbiased clinical data and CT automatic analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Calcium , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Cancer ; 151(11): 1860-1873, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976728

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-induced cardiotoxicity is a rare immune-related adverse event (irAE) characterized by a high mortality rate. From a pathological point of view, this condition can result from a series of causes, including binding of ICIs to target molecules on nonlymphocytic cells, cross-reaction of T lymphocytes against tumor antigens with off-target tissues, generation of autoantibodies and production of proinflammatory cytokines. The diagnosis of ICI-induced cardiotoxicity can be challenging, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) represents the diagnostic tool of choice in clinically stable patients with suspected myocarditis. CMR is gaining a central role in diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular damage in cancer patients, and it is entering international cardiology and oncology guidelines. In this narrative review, we summarized the clinical aspects of ICI-associated myocarditis, highlighting its radiological aspects and proposing a novel algorithm for the use of CMR.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Antigens, Neoplasm , Autoantibodies , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cytokines , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging
4.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 24(Suppl C): C243-C247, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948255

ABSTRACT

The rate of post-vaccine myocarditis is being studied from the beginning of the massive vaccination campaign against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although a direct cause-effect relationship has been described, in most cases, the vaccine pathophysiological role is doubtful. Moreover, it is not quite as clear as having had a previous myocarditis could be a risk factor for a post-vaccine disease relapse. A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department for palpitations and pericardial chest pain radiated to the upper left limb, on the 4th day after the third dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. He experienced a previous myocarditis 3 years before, with full recovery and no other comorbidities. Electrocardiogram showed normal atrioventricular conduction, incomplete right bundle branch block, and diffuse ST-segment elevation. A cardiac echo showed lateral wall hypokinesis with preserved ejection fraction. Troponin-T was elevated (160 ng/L), chest X-ray was normal, and the SARS-CoV-2 molecular buffer was negative. High-dose anti-inflammatory therapy with ibuprofen and colchicine was started; in the 3rd day high-sensitivity Troponin I reached a peak of 23000 ng/L. No heart failure or arrhythmias were observed. A cardiac magnetic resonance was performed showing normal biventricular systolic function and abnormal tissue characterization suggestive for acute non-ischaemic myocardial injury (increased native T1 and T2 values, increased signal intensity at T2-weighted images and late gadolinium enhancement, all findings with matched subepicardial distribution) at the level of mid to apical septal, anterior, and anterolateral walls. A left ventricular electroanatomic voltage mapping was negative (both unipolar and bipolar), while the endomyocardial biopsy showed a picture consistent with active myocarditis. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition, on bisoprolol 1.25 mg, ramipril 2.5 mg, ibuprofen 600 mg three times a day, colchicine 0.5 mg twice a day. We presented the case of a young man with history of previous myocarditis, admitted with a non-complicated acute myopericarditis relapse occurred 4 days after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (3rd dose). Despite the observed very low incidence of cardiac complications following BNT162b2 administration, and the lack of a clear proof of a direct cause-effect relationship, we think that in our patient this link can be more than likely. In the probable need for additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in the next future, studies addressing the risk-benefit balance of this subset of patient are warranted. We described a multidisciplinary management of a case of myocarditis recurrence after the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine.

5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(5): 290-303, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883852

ABSTRACT

In the past 20 years, cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has become a pivotal technique for the noninvasive diagnostic workup of coronary and cardiac diseases. Continuous technical and methodological improvements, combined with fast growing scientific evidence, have progressively expanded the clinical role of CCT. Randomized clinical trials documented the value of CCT in increasing the cost-effectiveness of the management of patients with acute chest pain presenting in the emergency department, also during the pandemic. Beyond the evaluation of stents and surgical graft patency, the anatomical and functional coronary imaging have the potential to guide treatment decision-making and planning for complex left main and three-vessel coronary disease. Furthermore, there has been an increasing demand to use CCT for preinterventional planning in minimally invasive procedures, such as transcatheter valve implantation and mitral valve repair. Yet, the use of CCT as a roadmap for tailored electrophysiological procedures has gained increasing importance to assure maximum success. In the meantime, innovations and advanced postprocessing tools have generated new potential applications of CCT from the simple coronary anatomy to the complete assessment of structural, functional and pathophysiological biomarkers of cardiac disease. In this complex and revolutionary scenario, it is urgently needed to provide an updated guide for the appropriate use of CCT in different clinical settings. This manuscript, endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC) and the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM), represents the second of two consensus documents collecting the expert opinion of cardiologists and radiologists about current appropriate use of CCT.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Cardiomyopathies , Heart Diseases , Neoplasms , Chest Pain , Coronary Artery Bypass , Humans , Radiology, Interventional , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Eur Radiol ; 32(7): 4352-4360, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging features of patients with peri-myocarditis following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. METHODS: We retrospectively collected a case series of 27 patients who underwent CMR in the clinical suspect of heart inflammation following COVID-19 vaccination, from 16 large tertiary centers. Our patient's cohort was relatively young (36.6 ± 16.8 years), predominately included males (n = 25/27) with few comorbidities and covered a catchment area of approximately 8 million vaccinated patients. RESULTS: CMR revealed typical mid-subepicardial non-ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 23 cases and matched positively with CMR T2 criteria of myocarditis. In 7 cases, typical hallmarks of acute pericarditis were present. Short-term follow-up (median = 20 days) from presentation was uneventful for 25/27 patients and unavailable in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: While establishing a causal relationship between peri-myocardial inflammation and vaccine administration can be challenging, our clinical experience suggests that CMR should be performed for diagnosis confirmation and to drive clinical decision-making and follow-up. KEY POINTS: • Acute onset of dyspnea, palpitations, or acute and persisting chest pain after COVID-19 vaccination should raise the suspicion of possible myocarditis or pericarditis, and patients should seek immediate medical attention and treatment to help recovery and avoid complications. • In case of elevated troponin levels and/or relevant ECG changes, cardiac magnetic resonance should be considered as the best non-invasive diagnostic option to confirm the diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis and to drive clinical decision-making and follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Gadolinium/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pericarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
8.
Eur J Radiol ; 149: 110188, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664888

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, responsible for COVID-19 outbreak, can cause cardiac complications, worsening outcome and prognosis. In particular, it can exacerbate any underlying cardiovascular condition, leading to atherosclerosis and increased plaque vulnerability, which may cause acute coronary syndrome. We review current knowledge on the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 can trigger endothelial/myocardial damage and cause plaque formation, instability and deterioration. The aim of this review is to evaluate current non-invasive diagnostic techniques for coronary arteries evaluation in COVID-19 patients, such as coronary CT angiography and atherosclerotic plaque imaging, and their clinical implications. We also discuss the role of artificial intelligence, deep learning and radiomics in the context of coronary imaging in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Artificial Intelligence , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 775115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631295

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) as the sole available non-invasive diagnostic technique for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic causing limited access to the hospital facilities. Methods and Results: A consecutive cohort of patients with suspected stable CAD and clinical indication to non-invasive test was enrolled in a hub hospital in Milan, Italy, from March 9 to April 30, 2020. Outcome measures were obtained as follows: cardiac death, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and unstable angina. All the changes in medical therapy following the result of CCTA were annotated. A total of 58 patients with a mean age of 64 ± 11 years (36 men and 22 women) were enrolled. CCTA showed no CAD in 14 patients (24.1%), non-obstructive CAD in 30 (51.7%) patients, and obstructive CAD in 14 (24.1%) patients. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) was considered deferrable in 48 (82.8%) patients. No clinical events were recorded after a mean follow-up of 376.4 ± 32.1 days. Changes in the medical therapy were significantly more prevalent in patients with vs. those without CAD at CCTA. Conclusion: The results of the study confirm the capability of CCTA to safely defer ICA in the majority of symptomatic patients and to correctly identify those with critical coronary stenoses necessitating coronary revascularization. This characteristic could be really helpful especially when the hospital resources are limited.

10.
Hypertens Res ; 45(2): 333-343, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521736

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is associated with more severe disease and adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Recent investigations have indicated that hypertension might be an independent predictor of outcomes in COVID-19 patients regardless of other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities. We explored the significance of coronary calcifications in 694 hypertensive patients in the Score-COVID registry, an Italian multicenter study conducted during the first pandemic wave in the Western world (March-April 2020). A total of 1565 patients admitted with RNA-PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swabs and chest computed tomography (CT) at hospital admission were included in the study. Clinical outcomes and cardiovascular calcifications were analyzed independently by a research core lab. Hypertensive patients had a different risk profile than nonhypertensive patients, with more cardiovascular comorbidities. The deceased hypertensive patients had a greater coronary calcification burden at the level of the anterior descending coronary artery. Hypertension status and the severity cutoffs of coronary calcifications were used to stratify the clinical outcomes. For every 100-mm3 increase in coronary calcium volume, hospital mortality in hypertensive patients increased by 8%, regardless of sex, age, diabetes, creatinine, and lung interstitial involvement. The coronary calcium score contributes to stratifying the risk of complications in COVID-19 patients. Cardiovascular calcifications appear to be a promising imaging marker for providing pathophysiological insight into cardiovascular risk factors and COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Hypertension , Vascular Calcification , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 341: 100-106, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, COVID-19 massively hit Italy, earlier and harder than any other European country. This caused a series of strict containment measures, aimed at blocking the spread of the pandemic. Healthcare delivery was also affected when resources were diverted towards care of COVID-19 patients, including intensive care wards. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim is assessing the impact of COVID-19 on cardiac imaging in Italy, compare to the Rest of Europe (RoE) and the World (RoW). METHODS: A global survey was conducted in May-June 2020 worldwide, through a questionnaire distributed online. The survey covered three periods: March and April 2020, and March 2019. Data from 52 Italian centres, a subset of the 909 participating centres from 108 countries, were analyzed. RESULTS: In Italy, volumes decreased by 67% in March 2020, compared to March 2019, as opposed to a significantly lower decrease (p < 0.001) in RoE and RoW (41% and 40%, respectively). A further decrease from March 2020 to April 2020 summed up to 76% for the North, 77% for the Centre and 86% for the South. When compared to the RoE and RoW, this further decrease from March 2020 to April 2020 in Italy was significantly less (p = 0.005), most likely reflecting the earlier effects of the containment measures in Italy, taken earlier than anywhere else in the West. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic massively hit Italy and caused a disruption of healthcare services, including cardiac imaging studies. This raises concern about the medium- and long-term consequences for the high number of patients who were denied timely diagnoses and the subsequent lifesaving therapies and procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac diagnostic testing and practice and to assess its impact in different regions in Europe. METHODS: The online survey organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency Division of Human Health collected information on changes in cardiac imaging procedural volumes between March 2019 and March/April 2020. Data were collected from 909 centres in 108 countries. RESULTS: Centres in Northern and Southern Europe were more likely to cancel all outpatient activities compared with Western and Eastern Europe. There was a greater reduction in total procedure volumes in Europe compared with the rest of the world in March 2020 (45% vs 41%, p=0.003), with a more marked reduction in Southern Europe (58%), but by April 2020 this was similar in Europe and the rest of the world (69% vs 63%, p=0.261). Regional variations were apparent between imaging modalities, but the largest reductions were in Southern Europe for nearly all modalities. In March 2020, location in Southern Europe was the only independent predictor of the reduction in procedure volume. However, in April 2020, lower gross domestic product and higher COVID-19 deaths were the only independent predictors. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on care of patients with cardiac disease, with substantial regional variations in Europe. This has potential long-term implications for patients and plans are required to enable the diagnosis of non-COVID-19 conditions during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/trends , Cardiologists/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Europe , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests
13.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2215-2229, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309072

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical and demographical studies on COVID-19 patients have demonstrated that men experience worse outcomes than women. However, in most cases, the data were not stratified according to gender, limiting the understanding of the real impact of gender on outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the disaggregated in-hospital outcomes and explore the possible interactions between gender and cardiovascular calcifications. Data was derived from the sCORE-COVID-19 registry, an Italian multicentre registry that enrolled COVID-19 patients who had undergone a chest computer tomography scan on admission. A total of 1683 hospitalized patients (mean age 67±14 years) were included. Men had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, a higher pneumonia extension, more coronary calcifications (63% vs.50.9%, p<0.001), and a higher coronary calcium score (391±847 vs. 171±479 mm3, p<0.001). Men experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (24.4% vs. 17%, p=0.001), but the death event tended to occur earlier in women (15±7 vs. 8±7 days, p= 0.07). Non-survivors had a higher coronary, thoracic aorta, and aortic valve calcium score. Female sex, a known independent predictor of a favorable outcome in SARS-CoV2 infection, was not protective in women with a coronary calcification volume greater than 100 mm3. There were significant differences in cardiovascular comorbidities and vascular calcifications between men and women with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. The differences in outcomes can be at least partially explained by the different cardiovascular profiles. However, women with poor outcomes had the same coronary calcific burden as men. The presumed favorable female sex bias in COVID-19 must therefore be reviewed in the context of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Calcification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
14.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(4): 3364-3383, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206379

ABSTRACT

Emerging studies address how COVID-19 infection can impact the human cardiovascular system. This relates particularly to the development of myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Prospective treatment approach is advised for these patients. To study the interplay between local changes (reduced contractility), global variables (peripheral resistances, heart rate) and the cardiac function, we considered a lumped parameters computational model of the cardiovascular system and a three-dimensional multiphysics model of cardiac electromechanics. Our mathematical model allows to simulate the systemic and pulmonary circulations, the four cardiac valves and the four heart chambers, through equations describing the underlying physical processes. By the assessment of conventionally relevant parameters of cardiac function obtained through our numerical simulations, we propose a computational model to effectively reveal the interactions between the cardiac and pulmonary functions in virtual subjects with normal and impaired cardiac function at baseline affected by mild or severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart , Hemodynamics , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 136-143, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The potential impact of coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary artery calcium, on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients remains unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), in a large, unselected population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing non-gated chest computed tomography (CT) for clinical practice. METHODS: SARS-CoV 2 positive patients from the multicenter (16 Italian hospitals), retrospective observational SCORE COVID-19 (calcium score for COVID-19 Risk Evaluation) registry were stratified in three groups: (a) "clinical CAD" (prior revascularization history), (b) "subclinical CAD" (CAC >0), (c) "No CAD" (CAC = 0). Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and the secondary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident (MI/CVA). RESULTS: Amongst 1625 patients (male 67.2%, median age 69 [interquartile range 58-77] years), 31%, 57.8% and 11.1% had no, subclinical and clinical CAD, respectively. Increasing rates of in-hospital mortality (11.3% vs. 27.3% vs. 39.8%, p < 0.001) and MI/CVA events (2.3% vs. 3.8% vs. 11.9%, p < 0.001) were observed for patients with no CAD vs. subclinical CAD vs clinical CAD, respectively. The association with in-hospital mortality was independent of in-study outcome predictors (age, peripheral artery disease, active cancer, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, LDH, aerated lung volume): subclinical CAD vs. No CAD: adjusted hazard ratio (adj-HR) 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-7.17, p=0.025); clinical CAD vs. No CAD: adj-HR 3.74 (95% CI 1.21-11.60, p=0.022). Among patients with subclinical CAD, increasing CAC burden was associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality (20.5% vs. 27.9% vs. 38.7% for patients with CAC score thresholds≤100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively, p < 0.001). The adj-HR per 50 points increase in CAC score 1.007 (95%CI 1.001-1.013, p=0.016). Cardiovascular risk factors were not independent predictors of in-hospital mortality when CAD presence and extent were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and extent of CAD are associated with in-hospital mortality and MI/CVA among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease and they appear to be a better prognostic gauge as compared to a clinical cardiovascular risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Aged , Calcium , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(5): e200389, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156005

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the independent and incremental value of CT-derived quantitative burden and attenuation of COVID-19 pneumonia for the prediction of clinical deterioration or death. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective international registry of consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and chest CT imaging, admitted to four centers between January 10 and May 6, 2020. Total burden (expressed as a percentage) and mean attenuation of ground glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation were quantified from CT using semi-automated research software. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration (intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or vasopressor therapy) or in-hospital death. Logistic regression was performed to assess the predictive value of clinical and CT parameters for the primary outcome. RESULTS: The final population comprised 120 patients (mean age 64 ± 16 years, 78 men), of whom 39 (32.5%) experienced clinical deterioration or death. In multivariable regression of clinical and CT parameters, consolidation burden (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7, 6.9 per doubling; P = .001) and increasing GGO attenuation (OR, 3.2; 95% CI: 1.3, 8.3 per standard deviation, P = .02) were independent predictors of deterioration or death; as was C-reactive protein (OR, 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.4 per doubling; P = .004), history of heart failure (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6, P = .01), and chronic lung disease (OR, 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6; P = .02). Quantitative CT measures added incremental predictive value beyond a model with only clinical parameters (area under the curve, 0.93 vs 0.82, P = .006). The optimal prognostic cutoffs for burden of COVID-19 pneumonia as determined by Youden's index were consolidation of greater than or equal to 1.8% and GGO of greater than or equal to 13.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative burden of consolidation or GGO on chest CT independently predict clinical deterioration or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. CT-derived measures have incremental prognostic value over and above clinical parameters, and may be useful for risk stratifying patients with COVID-19.

17.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(5): 421-430, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide determining dramatic impacts on healthcare systems. Early identification of high-risk parameters is required in order to provide the best therapeutic approach. Coronary, thoracic aorta and aortic valve calcium can be measured from a non-gated chest computer tomography (CT) and are validated predictors of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, their prognostic role in acute systemic inflammatory diseases, such as COVID-19, has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the association of coronary artery calcium and total thoracic calcium on in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 1093 consecutive patients from 16 Italian hospitals with a positive swab for COVID-19 and an admission chest CT for pneumonia severity assessment were included. At CT, coronary, aortic valve and thoracic aorta calcium were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated separately and combined together (total thoracic calcium) by a central Core-lab blinded to patients' outcomes. RESULTS: Non-survivors compared to survivors had higher coronary artery [Agatston (467.76 â€‹± â€‹570.92 vs 206.80 â€‹± â€‹424.13 â€‹mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001); Volume (487.79 â€‹± â€‹565.34 vs 207.77 â€‹± â€‹406.81, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)], aortic valve [Volume (322.45 â€‹± â€‹390.90 vs 98.27 â€‹± â€‹250.74 mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001; Agatston 337.38 â€‹± â€‹414.97 vs 111.70 â€‹± â€‹282.15, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)] and thoracic aorta [Volume (3786.71 â€‹± â€‹4225.57 vs 1487.63 â€‹± â€‹2973.19 mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001); Agatston (4688.82 â€‹± â€‹5363.72 vs 1834.90 â€‹± â€‹3761.25, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)] calcium values. Coronary artery calcium (HR 1.308; 95% CI, 1.046-1.637, p â€‹= â€‹0.019) and total thoracic calcium (HR 1.975; 95% CI, 1.200-3.251, p â€‹= â€‹0.007) resulted to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Coronary, aortic valve and thoracic aortic calcium assessment on admission non-gated CT permits to stratify the COVID-19 patients in-hospital mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Vascular Calcification/mortality , Vascular Calcification/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/mortality , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
18.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134020

ABSTRACT

Lung infection named as COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CT (computed tomography) has been shown to have good sensitivity in comparison with RT-PCR, particularly in early stages. However, CT findings appear to not always be related to a certain clinical severity. The aim of this study is to evaluate a correlation between the percentage of lung parenchyma volume involved with COVID-19 infection (compared to the total lung volume) at baseline diagnosis and correlated to the patient's clinical course (need for ventilator assistance and or death). All patients with suspected COVID-19 lung disease referred to our imaging department for Chest CT from 24 February to 6 April 2020were included in the study. Specific CT features were assessed including the amount of high attenuation areas (HAA) related to lung infection. HAA, defined as the percentage of lung parenchyma above a predefined threshold of -650 (HAA%, HAA/total lung volume), was automatically calculated using a dedicated segmentation software. Lung volumes and CT findings were correlated with patient's clinical course. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the predictive value of clinical, inflammatory and CT parameters for the defined outcome. In the overall population we found an average infected lung volume of 31.4 ± 26.3% while in the subgroup of patients who needed ventilator assistance and who died as well as the patients who died without receiving ventilator assistance the volume of infected lung was significantly higher 41.4 ± 28.5 and 72.7 ± 36.2 (p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis best predictors for ventilation and death were the presence of air bronchogram (p = 0.006), crazy paving (p = 0.007), peripheral distribution (p < 0.001), age (p = 0.002), fever at admission (p = 0.007), dyspnea (p = 0.002) and cardiovascular comorbidities (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, quantitative CT parameters and features added incremental predictive value beyond a model with only clinical parameters (area under the curve, 0.78 vs. 0.74, p = 0.02). Our study demonstrates that quantitative evaluation of lung volume involved by COVID-19 pneumonia helps to predict patient's clinical course.

19.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(2): 180-189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122961

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review is to highlight the most impactful, educational, and frequently downloaded articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (JCCT) for the year 2020. The JCCT reached new records in 2020 for the number of research submissions, published manuscripts, article downloads and social media impressions. The articles in this review were selected by the Editorial Board of the JCCT and are comprised predominately of original research publications in the following categories: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease, coronary physiology, structural heart disease, and technical advances. The Editorial Board would like to thank each of the authors, peer-reviewers and the readers of JCCT for making 2020 one of the most successful years in its history, despite the challenging circumstances of the global COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/virology , Periodicals as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors
20.
Diagnostics ; 11(2):265, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077134

ABSTRACT

Lung infection named as COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CT (computed tomography) has been shown to have good sensitivity in comparison with RT-PCR, particularly in early stages. However, CT findings appear to not always be related to a certain clinical severity. The aim of this study is to evaluate a correlation between the percentage of lung parenchyma volume involved with COVID-19 infection (compared to the total lung volume) at baseline diagnosis and correlated to the patient’s clinical course (need for ventilator assistance and or death). All patients with suspected COVID-19 lung disease referred to our imaging department for Chest CT from 24 February to 6 April 2020were included in the study. Specific CT features were assessed including the amount of high attenuation areas (HAA) related to lung infection. HAA, defined as the percentage of lung parenchyma above a predefined threshold of −650 (HAA%, HAA/total lung volume), was automatically calculated using a dedicated segmentation software. Lung volumes and CT findings were correlated with patient’s clinical course. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the predictive value of clinical, inflammatory and CT parameters for the defined outcome. In the overall population we found an average infected lung volume of 31.4 ± 26.3% while in the subgroup of patients who needed ventilator assistance and who died as well as the patients who died without receiving ventilator assistance the volume of infected lung was significantly higher 41.4 ± 28.5 and 72.7 ± 36.2 (p <0.001). In logistic regression analysis best predictors for ventilation and death were the presence of air bronchogram (p = 0.006), crazy paving (p = 0.007), peripheral distribution (p <0.001), age (p = 0.002), fever at admission (p = 0.007), dyspnea (p = 0.002) and cardiovascular comorbidities (p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, quantitative CT parameters and features added incremental predictive value beyond a model with only clinical parameters (area under the curve, 0.78 vs. 0.74, p = 0.02). Our study demonstrates that quantitative evaluation of lung volume involved by COVID-19 pneumonia helps to predict patient’s clinical course.

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