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Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(6): 467-475, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-235502


After the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) commenced across the world. Understanding the Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 is essential for interrupting viral infectivity and preventing aberrant immune responses before a vaccine can be developed. In this review, we provide the latest insights into the roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) and Ang II receptor-1 (AT1-R) in this disease. Novel therapeutic strategies, including recombinant ACE2, ACE inhibitors, AT1-R blockers, and Ang 1-7 peptides, may prevent or reduce viruses-induced pulmonary, cardiac, and renal injuries. However, more studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of these therapeutics. Furthermore, considering the common role of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway in AT1-R expressed on peripheral tissues and cytokine receptors on the surface of immune cells, potential targeting of this pathway using JAK inhibitors (JAKinibs) is suggested as a promising approach in patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to hospitals. In addition to antiviral therapy, potential ACE2- and AT1-R-inhibiting strategies, and other supportive care, we suggest other potential JAKinibs and novel anti-inflammatory combination therapies that affect the JAK-STAT pathway in patients with COVID-19. Since the combination of MTX and baricitinib leads to outstanding clinical outcomes, the addition of baricitinib to MTX might be a potential strategy.

Angiotensin I/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Janus Kinases/genetics , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Purines , Pyrazoles , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology