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Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233121


COVID-19-pandemic-related home confinement aids in limiting the spread of the virus but restricts exposure to sunlight, thereby possibly affecting 25(OH)D concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lockdown measures on 25(OH)D levels in outpatients visiting the healthcare centre over a period of two years. In this retrospective chart review, outpatients who visited a university healthcare centre for a health check-up over a period of two years were included. The patients' 25(OH)D serum levels and status were compared before, during, and after the lockdown periods. A total of 7234 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 34.66 ± 16.78. The overall prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency, deficiency and sufficiency was 33.8%, 30.7% and 35.4%, respectively. The proportion of individuals with 25-(OH) D deficiency prior to lockdown was 29% and this proportion increased in the lockdown and post-lockdown periods to 31.1% and 32%, respectively. Although gender was less likely to have an impact on the 25 (OH) D level during the lockdown period (p = 0.630), we found an association between gender and 25 (OH) D status in the pre-lockdown and post-lockdown periods (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Another association between nationality and 25 (OH)D levels was found before, during and after the lockdown periods (p < 0.001). In addition, the youngest population, aged between 1 and 14, was strongly affected by the home confinement. Age had a positive and significant (p < 0.05) effect on 25 (OH) D status regardless of the different periods. Moreover, in the pre-lockdown period, male outpatients had 1.56 chance of having a sufficient level of 25 (OH)D. However, during the lockdown period, this chance decreased to 0.85 and then increased to 0.99 after the lockdown period. We found no statistically significant difference in the mean serum concentrations or in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency when we compared values from before, during and immediately after the COVID-19 lockdown period. However, there was a generally increased prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in our study population. Another association between gender, nationality and age groups with 25(OH) D was found. Regular exposure to UVR is recommended for maintaining adequate vitamin D levels and to prevent vitamin D deficiency. Further research is needed to determine the best indications for vitamin D supplementation if confinement periods are extended and to consider the potential health consequences of prolonged confinement periods not only on vitamin D status but also on overall public health. The findings of this study may be considered by stakeholders for a targeted supplementation approach for risk groups.

COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Vitamin D , Calcifediol , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins , Risk Factors , Delivery of Health Care
Applied Sciences ; 13(8):4837, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2301497


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant transformation in the field of telehealth and telemedicine, as systems have been improved to meet the increased demand for remote healthcare services. Many ordinary technologies have been equipped to facilitate the normal relationship between patients and specialists. These technologies were put into action in a short period of time, creating a gap between the limits of common technologies and the special needs of telemedicine patients. Furthermore, focusing the lens on the special needs of sports in terms of nutrition, we see that research demonstrates the possibility of improving athletic performance by introducing technological diet support. This review aims to provide an overview of the technologies successfully implemented in telemedicine systems, a look at new modeling approaches, and a study on the roles of new enabling technologies in the process. It aims to highlight the results of the employment of telemedicine in sports dietary support and present open research challenges and recommendations for future research on a new application of technologies in telemedicine, for both the industrial and academic sectors. Literature was identified through intensive research work, reviewing articles related to the topics of new technologies in telemedicine and sports dietary support systems. The review concludes that it is possible to envisage the design of future models in the eHealth sector related to nutrition and sports, confirming the important role of telemedicine in a healthy lifestyle.