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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 891398, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022833

ABSTRACT

Background: In more than 90% of chronic viral hepatitis C (HCV) patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), a sustained viral response (SVR) was observed. Unfortunately, there are subgroups of subjects who display enduring liver fibrosis and are at high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, liver fibrosis evaluation during the follow-up of these patients plays a pivotal role. The gold standard to evaluate hepatic fibrosis is liver biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. Imaging techniques and serum biomarkers have been proposed as safer and cheaper procedures. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the concordance of transient elastography (TE) with ELF score ( enhanced liver fibrosis) in a cohort of patients with HCV before and after direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) treatment. ELF score has been validated in other chronic liver diseases; the evidence is not available in HCV patients treated with DAAs. Study design: We prospectively recruited all consecutive HCV patient candidates for DAAs therapy at the University of Naples "Federico II" between April 2015 and July 2016. TE and ELF scores were assessed at baseline, at SVR24, and at SVR48. Results: One-hundred-nineteen patients were treated with DAAs, and 94.1% of them reached SVR. A total of 55.5% of patients were males with a mean age of 64.7 ± 9.6 years. TE results revealed that 12 patients (10%) had F1-2 mild/moderate fibrosis, and 107 (90%) had F3-4 advanced fibrosis. At baseline, SVR24, and SVR48, the concordance between ELF test and TE was poor: 0.11 (p = 0.086), 0.15 (p = 0.124), and 0.034 (p = 0.002), respectively. However, at SVR24 and SVR48, both methods showed a significant amelioration of liver fibrosis compared to baseline (p < 0.001). In addition, both ELF index and TE were significantly associated with portal hypertension at baseline, but not with varices and ascites. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that ELF test could predict changes in liver fibrosis, independently of TE. In case of TE unavailability, ELF score could represent an appropriate tool. Notably, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, ELF testing should be encouraged to reduce unnecessary access to the hospital and prolonged physical contact.

2.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 90, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the only approach to rapidly monitor and tackle emerging variants of concern (VOC) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such scrutiny is crucial to limit the spread of VOC that might escape the immune protection conferred by vaccination strategies or previous virus exposure. It is also becoming clear now that efficient genomic surveillance would require monitoring of the host gene expression to identify prognostic biomarkers of treatment efficacy and disease progression. Here we propose an integrative workflow to both generate thousands of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences per week and analyze host gene expression upon infection. METHODS: In this study we applied an integrated workflow for RNA extracted from nasal swabs to obtain in parallel the full genome of SARS-CoV-2 and transcriptome of host respiratory epithelium. The RNA extracted from each sample was reverse transcribed and the viral genome was specifically enriched through an amplicon-based approach. The very same RNA was then used for patient transcriptome analysis. Samples were collected in the Campania region, Italy, for viral genome sequencing. Patient transcriptome analysis was performed on about 700 samples divided into two cohorts of patients, depending on the viral variant detected (B.1 or delta). RESULTS: We sequenced over 20,000 viral genomes since the beginning of the pandemic, producing the highest number of sequences in Italy. We thus reconstructed the pandemic dynamics in the regional territory from March 2020 to December 2021. In addition, we have matured and applied novel proof-of-principle approaches to prioritize possible gain-of-function mutations by leveraging patients' metadata and isolated patient-specific signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This allowed us to (i) identify three new viral variants that specifically originated in the Campania region, (ii) map SARS-CoV-2 intrahost variability during long-term infections and in one case identify an increase in the number of mutations in the viral genome, and (iii) identify host gene expression signatures correlated with viral load in upper respiratory ways. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we have successfully generated an optimized and cost-effective strategy to monitor SARS-CoV-2 genetic variability, without the need of automation. Thus, our approach is suitable for any lab with a benchtop sequencer and a limited budget, allowing an integrated genomic surveillance on premises. Finally, we have also identified a gene expression signature defining SARS-CoV-2 infection in real-world patients' upper respiratory ways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969536

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most effective preventive measure to control the spread of COVID-19 and reduce associated complications. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 41 adult SLE patients receiving two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Comirnaty-BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine were enrolled. The quantitative determination of anti-trimeric spike protein-specific IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed before (T0), 21 days after the administration of the first dose of the vaccine (T1), and between 21 and 28 days after the second dose (T2). They were compared with the same determinations from a cohort of 29 patients with C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency hereditary angioedema (C1-INH-HAE) as controls. All the SLE patients and controls demonstrated a positive serological response after a single dose of the vaccine (T1), which significantly increased after the second dose (T2). No significant difference was found between SLE patients and controls at T1 [t(52.81) = -0.68; p = 0.49] and at T2 [t(67.74) = -0.22; p = 0.825]. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) analysis showed that the vaccine did not influence SLE activity or caused disease flare in our cohort. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccines produced a satisfactory response in SLE patients without variation in the disease activity.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307558

ABSTRACT

In Europe, two waves of infections with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have been observed to date. Here, we have investigated whether common patterns of cytokines could be detected in individuals with mild and severe forms of COVID-19 in the two pandemic waves, and whether machine learning approach could be useful to identify the best predictors. An increasing trend of multiple cytokines was observed in patients with mild or severe/critical symptoms of COVID-19, compared with healthy volunteers. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) clearly recognized the three groups based on cytokine patterns. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) further indicated that IL-6 discriminated controls and COVID-19 patients, whilst IL-8 defined disease severity. During the second wave of pandemics, a less intense cytokine storm was observed. CART analysis revealed that IL-6 was the most robust predictor of infection and discriminated moderate COVID-19 patients from healthy controls, regardless of epidemic peak curve. Thus, serum cytokine patterns provide non-invasive biomarkers useful for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. Further definition of individual cytokines may allow to envision novel therapeutic options and pave the way to set up innovative diagnostic tools.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317113

ABSTRACT

Background: The easy access to a quick diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a key point to improve the management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to contain its spread. Up to now, laboratory real-time PCR is the standard of care, but requires a fully equipped laboratory and significant infrastructure. Consequently, new diagnostic tools are required. Methods: : In the present work, the diagnostic accuracy of the point-of-care rapid test "bKIT Virus Finder COVID-19" (Hyris Ltd ) is evaluated by a retrospective and a prospective analysis on SARS CoV-2 samples previously assessed with an FDA “authorized for the emergency use - EUA” reference method. Descriptive statistics were used for the present study. Results: : Results obtained with the Hyris Kit are the same as that of standard laboratory-based real time PCR methods for all the analyzed samples. In addition, the Hyris Kit provides the test results in less than 2 hours, a significantly shorter time compared to the reference methods, without the need of a fully equipped laboratory. Conclusions: : To conclude, the Hyris kit represents a promising tool to improve the health surveillance and to increase the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 testing.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316430

ABSTRACT

Patients with non-hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) represent a population of special interest during the current Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemics. NHLs are associated with disease- and treatment-related immunodeficiencies which may generate unusual COVID-19 dynamics and pose unique management challenges. We report the unusual clinical course of COVID-19 in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exposed to nine doses of Rituximab shortly before infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). He had a prolonged asymptomatic phase, with negative molecular and antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2, followed by a rapidly progressive evolution to severe COVID-19. Despite detection of viral RNA overlapped with first symptoms occurrence, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies displayed an asynchronous pattern, with IgG first appearing two days after RNA positivity and IgM never being detected throughout the entire clinical course. While disease-associated immune derangements and/or previous treatments involving anti-CD20 antibodies might have contributed to COVID-19 dynamics in our patient, data suggests that antibody testings, without concurrent molecular assessment for SARS-CoV-2, may turn inadequate for monitoring of MCL patients, and in general NHL patients heavily exposed to anti-CD20 antibodies, during the current pandemics. Since these patients should not be denied or delayed effective treatments, we suggest that repeated molecular testing of nasopharyngeal swab should be implemented in these subjects despite a negative serology and absence of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For the same reasons, a customized strategy needs to be developed for patients exposed to anti-CD20 antibodies, based on different features and mechanism of action of currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20793, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479813

ABSTRACT

In Europe, multiple waves of infections with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have been observed. Here, we have investigated whether common patterns of cytokines could be detected in individuals with mild and severe forms of COVID-19 in two pandemic waves, and whether machine learning approach could be useful to identify the best predictors. An increasing trend of multiple cytokines was observed in patients with mild or severe/critical symptoms of COVID-19, compared with healthy volunteers. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) clearly recognized the three groups based on cytokine patterns. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) further indicated that IL-6 discriminated controls and COVID-19 patients, whilst IL-8 defined disease severity. During the second wave of pandemics, a less intense cytokine storm was observed, as compared with the first. IL-6 was the most robust predictor of infection and discriminated moderate COVID-19 patients from healthy controls, regardless of epidemic peak curve. Thus, serum cytokine patterns provide biomarkers useful for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. Further definition of individual cytokines may allow to envision novel therapeutic options and pave the way to set up innovative diagnostic tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Discriminant Analysis , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Italy/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 705948, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the case of a woman with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who remained positive on the molecular assay for SARS-CoV-2 for six months: she has never experienced a severe form of COVID-19 although in absence of seroconversion. METHODS: The whole SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis was performed by the CleanPlex SARS-CoV-2 Research and Surveillance NGS Panel (PARAGON GENOMICS, Hayward, USA). RESULTS: We found twenty-two mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome and a novel deleterious ORF3a frameshift c.766_769del corresponding to a unique and novel lineage. The region affected by this frameshift variant is reported as being important in determining SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity. Patient's immunophenotype showed the absence of B lymphocytes and significantly reduced T-cell count. Only after the treatment with hyperimmune plasma she finally became negative on the swab. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could be helpful in the management of patients with immunodeficiency, particularly when novel variants, potentially altering the virus immune response, are present.

10.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0057121, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329040

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing and has shown the community that flexible methods for rapidly identifying and screening candidate antivirals are needed. Assessing virus-neutralizing activity of human serum to monitor population immunity and response to infection and vaccination is key to pandemic control. We developed a virus neutralization platform strategy that relies only on bioinformatic and genetic information of the virus of interest. The platform uses viral envelope glycoprotein cDNAs to set up an assay that mimics multicycle infection but is safe and, therefore, amenable to biosafety level 2 (BSL2) conditions for viruses that require BSL3 facilities (e.g., SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2). As a complement to this platform, we present a new cell-based immunofluorescent (CBI) assay that uses SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-expressing cells to accurately measure the neutralization potential of human sera and is readily adaptable to variants of concern. These methods should be useful additions to the tools for assessing antiviral immunity, whether acquired via natural infection or vaccines. IMPORTANCE Assays for rapid biosafety level 2 (BSL2) evaluation of neutralizing properties of antibodies acquired via natural infection or through vaccination is urgently needed. Here, we propose a combinatorial approach in which sera are screened for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) binding using a cell-based immunofluorescent (CBI) assay, and positive samples are further evaluated in a pseudotyped viral multicycle infection-mimicking protocol under BSL2 conditions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vero Cells
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314782

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to demonstrate the release of SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) antibodies in human milk samples obtained by patients who have been vaccinated with mRNABNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: Milk and serum samples were collected in 10 volunteers 20 days after the first dose and 7 seven days after the second dose of the mRNABNT162b2 vaccine. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies were measured by the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S ECLIA assay (Roche Diagnostics AG, Rotkreuz, Switzerland), a quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunometric method. RESULTS: At first sample, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies were detected in all serum samples (103.9 ± 54.9 U/mL) and only in two (40%) milk samples with a low concentration (1.2 ± 0.3 U/mL). At the second sample, collected 7 days after the second dose, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies were detected in all serum samples (3875.7 ± 3504.6 UI/mL) and in all milk samples (41.5 ± 47.5 UI/mL). No correlation was found between the level of serum and milk antibodies; the milk antibodies/serum antibodies ratio was on average 2% (range: 0.2-8.4%). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a release of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies in the breast milk of women vaccinated with mRNABNT162b2. Vaccinating breastfeeding women could be a strategy to protect their infants from COVID-19 infection.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 921, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Management of large numbers of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for diagnosis of coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) requires robust infrastructures, located in dedicated premises with a high standard of biosafety procedures, and well-trained personnel. The handling of a "run-of-river sample" to obtain rapid reporting of results is challenging. METHODS: We studied the clinical performance of the Idylla™ SARS-CoV-2 Test (index test) on a platform capable of fully automated nucleic acid testing including extraction, amplification, and detection in a single-use cartridge to establish the diagnosis of COVID-19. The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of 112 volunteers with recent symptoms and an unknown SARS-CoV-2 status who came to free screening centers of the Nice metropolitan area. All subjects underwent bilateral nasopharyngeal sampling. One sample was processed using the index test, the other using the standard of care RT-PCR. Samples were treated blind. RESULTS: Most of the participants (70%) were sampled within 4 days of symptom onset. Forty-five (40.2%) were positive for COVID-19. No clinical symptoms were distinguished between SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive and negative subjects except anosmia and dysgeusia. Positive and negative agreement between the index and the standard of care test was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The Idylla™ SARS-CoV-2 Test is very sensitive, specific, rapid and easy to use in a near-patient RT-PCR approach to distinguish between symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients in selected settings.

13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 246, 2021 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first complete genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, more than 550,000 genomes have been submitted into the GISAID database. Sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome might allow identification of variants with increased contagiousness, different clinical patterns and/or different response to vaccines. A highly automated next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method might facilitate an active genomic surveillance of the virus. METHODS: RNA was extracted from 27 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from citizens of the Italian Campania region in March-April 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Following viral RNA quantification, sequencing was performed using the Ion AmpliSeq SARS-CoV-2 Research Panel on the Genexus Integrated Sequencer, an automated technology for library preparation and sequencing. The SARS-CoV-2 complete genomes were built using the pipeline SARS-CoV-2 RECoVERY (REconstruction of COronaVirus gEnomes & Rapid analYsis) and analysed by IQ-TREE software. RESULTS: The complete genome (100%) of SARS-CoV-2 was successfully obtained for 21/27 samples. In particular, the complete genome was fully sequenced for all 15 samples with high viral titer (> 200 copies/µl), for the two samples with a viral genome copy number < 200 but greater than 20, and for 4/10 samples with a viral load < 20 viral copies. The complete genome sequences classified into the B.1 and B.1.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineages. In comparison to the reference strain Wuhan-Hu-1, 48 total nucleotide variants were observed with 26 non-synonymous substitutions, 18 synonymous and 4 reported in untranslated regions (UTRs). Ten of the 26 non-synonymous variants were observed in ORF1ab, 7 in S, 1 in ORF3a, 2 in M and 6 in N genes. CONCLUSIONS: The Genexus system resulted successful for SARS-CoV-2 complete genome sequencing, also in cases with low viral copies. The use of this highly automated system might facilitate the standardization of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing protocols and make faster the identification of novel variants during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Italy , Whole Genome Sequencing
14.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 16(1): 38, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255945

ABSTRACT

Patients with non-hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) represent a population of special interest during the current Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemics. NHLs are associated with disease- and treatment-related immunodeficiencies which may generate unusual COVID-19 dynamics and pose unique management challenges. We report the unusual clinical course of COVID-19 in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exposed to nine doses of Rituximab shortly before infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). He had a prolonged asymptomatic phase, with negative molecular and antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2, followed by a rapidly progressive evolution to severe COVID-19. Despite detection of viral RNA overlapped with first symptoms occurrence, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies displayed an asynchronous pattern, with IgG first appearing 2 days after RNA positivity and IgM never being detected throughout the entire clinical course. While disease-associated immune derangements and/or previous treatments involving anti-CD20 antibodies might have contributed to COVID-19 dynamics in our patient, data suggests that antibody testings, without concurrent molecular assessment for SARS-CoV-2, may turn inadequate for monitoring of MCL patients, and in general NHL patients heavily exposed to anti-CD20 antibodies, during the current pandemics. We suggest that repeated molecular testing of nasopharyngeal swab should be implemented in these subjects despite a negative serology and absence of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For the same reasons, a customized strategy needs to be developed for patients exposed to anti-CD20 antibodies, based on different features and mechanism of action of available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and novel vaccinomics developments.

15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 649781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231426

ABSTRACT

The onset of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus encouraged the development of new serologic tests that could be additional and complementary to real-time RT-PCR-based assays. In such a context, the study of performances of available tests is urgently needed, as their use has just been initiated for seroprevalence assessment. The aim of this study was to compare four chemiluminescence immunoassays and one immunochromatography test for SARS-Cov-2 antibodies for the evaluation of the degree of diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Salerno Province (Campania Region, Italy). A total of 3,185 specimens from citizens were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as part of a screening program. Four automated immunoassays (Abbott and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgG and Roche and Siemens SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgM/IgG/IgA assays) and one lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA Technogenetics IgG-IgM COVID-19) were used. Seroprevalence in the entire cohort was 2.41, 2.10, 1.82, and 1.85% according to the Liaison IgG, Abbott IgG, Siemens, and Roche total Ig tests, respectively. When we explored the agreement among the rapid tests and the serologic assays, we reported good agreement for Abbott, Siemens, and Roche (Cohen's Kappa coefficient 0.69, 0.67, and 0.67, respectively), whereas we found moderate agreement for Liaison (Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.58). Our study showed that Abbott and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgG, Roche and Siemens SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgM/IgG/IgA assays, and LFIA Technogenetics IgG-IgM COVID-19 have good agreement in seroprevalence assessment. In addition, our findings indicate that the prevalence of IgG and total Ig antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the time of the study was as low as around 3%, likely explaining the amplitude of the current second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin M , Italy , Luminescence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
J Clin Pathol ; 75(8): 551-554, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175184

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To date, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal swabs is the 'gold standard' approach for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The need to develop easy to use, rapid, robust and with minimal hands-on time approaches are warranted. In this setting, the Idylla SARS-CoV-2 Test may be a valuable option. The aim of our study is to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of this assay on previously tested SARS-CoV-2 people by conventional RT-PCR based approach in different settings, including initial diagnosis and clinical follow-up. METHODS: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Idylla SARS-CoV-2 Test, we retrieved 55 nasopharyngeal swabs, previously analysed by a fully validated assay, from symptomatic patients or from people who have been in close contact with COVID-19 positive cases. Discordant or high discrepant cases were further analysed by a third technique. In addition, a second subset of 14 nasopharyngeal swab samples with uncertain results (cycle threshold between 37 and 40), by using the fully validated assay, from patients with viral infection beyond day 21, were retrieved. RESULTS: Overall, Idylla showed a sensitivity of 93.9% and a specificity of 100.0%. In addition, in the additional 14 nasopharyngeal swab samples, only five (35.7%) featured a positive result by the Idylla SARS-CoV-2 Test. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the Idylla SARS-CoV-2 Test may represent a valid, fast, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR test for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pilot Projects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 488, 2020 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The easy access to a quick diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a key point to improve the management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to contain its spread. Up to now, laboratory real-time PCR is the standard of care, but requires a fully equipped laboratory and significant infrastructure. Consequently, new diagnostic tools are required. METHODS: In the present work, the diagnostic accuracy of the point-of-care rapid test "bKIT Virus Finder COVID-19" (Hyris Ltd) is evaluated by a retrospective and a prospective analysis on SARS CoV-2 samples previously assessed with an FDA "authorized for the emergency use-EUA" reference method. Descriptive statistics were used for the present study. RESULTS: Results obtained with the Hyris Kit are the same as that of standard laboratory-based real time PCR methods for all the analyzed samples. In addition, the Hyris Kit provides the test results in less than 2 h, a significantly shorter time compared to the reference methods, without the need of a fully equipped laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, the Hyris kit represents a promising tool to improve the health surveillance and to increase the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Reference Standards , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
ACS Sens ; 5(10): 3043-3048, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801107

ABSTRACT

Mass testing is fundamental to face the pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 discovered at the end of 2019. To this aim, it is necessary to establish reliable, fast, and cheap tools to detect viral particles in biological material so to identify the people capable of spreading the infection. We demonstrate that a colorimetric biosensor based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) interaction induced by SARS-CoV-2 lends itself as an outstanding tool for detecting viral particles in nasal and throat swabs. The extinction spectrum of a colloidal solution of multiple viral-target gold nanoparticles-AuNPs functionalized with antibodies targeting three surface proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (spike, envelope, and membrane)-is red-shifted in few minutes when mixed with a solution containing the viral particle. The optical density of the mixed solution measured at 560 nm was compared to the threshold cycle (Ct) of a real-time PCR (gold standard for detecting the presence of viruses) finding that the colorimetric method is able to detect very low viral load with a detection limit approaching that of the real-time PCR. Since the method is sensitive to the infecting viral particle rather than to its RNA, the achievements reported here open a new perspective not only in the context of the current and possible future pandemics, but also in microbiology, as the biosensor proves itself to be a powerful though simple tool for measuring the viral particle concentration.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Colorimetry/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Gold , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles , Pandemics , Photochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Threshold Limit Values , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry
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