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BJS Open ; 6(1)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684531


BACKGROUND: This study compared patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery in 20 hospitals of northern Italy in 2019 versus 2020, in order to evaluate whether COVID-19-related delays of colorectal cancer screening resulted in more advanced cancers at diagnosis and worse clinical outcomes. METHOD: This was a retrospective multicentre cohort analysis of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery in March to December 2019 versus March to December 2020. Independent predictors of disease stage (oncological stage, associated symptoms, clinical T4 stage, metastasis) and outcome (surgical complications, palliative surgery, 30-day death) were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1755 patients operated in 2019, and 1481 in 2020 (both mean age 69.6 years). The proportion of cancers with symptoms, clinical T4 stage, liver and lung metastases in 2019 and 2020 were respectively: 80.8 versus 84.5 per cent; 6.2 versus 8.7 per cent; 10.2 versus 10.3 per cent; and 3.0 versus 4.4 per cent. The proportions of surgical complications, palliative surgery and death in 2019 and 2020 were, respectively: 34.4 versus 31.9 per cent; 5.0 versus 7.5 per cent; and 1.7 versus 2.4 per cent. Cancers in 2020 (versus 2019) were more likely to be symptomatic (odds ratio 1.36 (95 per cent c.i. 1.09 to 1.69)), clinical T4 stage (odds ratio 1.38 (95 per cent c.i. 1.03 to 1.85)) and have multiple liver metastases (odds ratio 2.21 (95 per cent c.i. 1.24 to 3.94)), but were not more likely to be associated with surgical complications (odds ratio 0.79 (95 per cent c.i. 0.68 to 0.93)). CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer patients who had surgery between March and December 2020 had an increased risk of advanced disease in terms of associated symptoms, cancer location, clinical T4 stage and number of liver metastases.

COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Aged , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
JAMA Surg ; 155(8): 691-702, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596400


Importance: There are limited data on mortality and complications rates in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who undergo surgery. Objective: To evaluate early surgical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in different subspecialties. Design, Setting, and Participants: This matched cohort study conducted in the general, vascular and thoracic surgery, orthopedic, and neurosurgery units of Spedali Civili Hospital (Brescia, Italy) included patients who underwent surgical treatment from February 23 to April 1, 2020, and had positive test results for COVID-19 either before or within 1 week after surgery. Gynecological and minor surgical procedures were excluded. Patients with COVID-19 were matched with patients without COVID-19 with a 1:2 ratio for sex, age group, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and comorbidities recorded in the surgical risk calculator of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients older than 65 years were also matched for the Clinical Frailty Scale score. Exposures: Patients with positive results for COVID-19 and undergoing surgery vs matched surgical patients without infection. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay in nasopharyngeal swabs, chest radiography, and/or computed tomography. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on positivity of at least 1 of these investigations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was early surgical mortality and complications in patients with COVID-19; secondary end points were the modeling of complications to determine the importance of COVID-19 compared with other surgical risk factors. Results: Of 41 patients (of 333 who underwent operation during the same period) who underwent mainly urgent surgery, 33 (80.5%) had positive results for COVID-19 preoperatively and 8 (19.5%) had positive results within 5 days from surgery. Of the 123 patients of the combined cohorts (78 women [63.4%]; mean [SD] age, 76.6 [14.4] years), 30-day mortality was significantly higher for those with COVID-19 compared with control patients without COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 9.5; 95% CI, 1.77-96.53). Complications were also significantly higher (OR, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.81-16.07); pulmonary complications were the most common (OR, 35.62; 95% CI, 9.34-205.55), but thrombotic complications were also significantly associated with COVID-19 (OR, 13.2; 95% CI, 1.48-∞). Different models (cumulative link model and classification tree) identified COVID-19 as the main variable associated with complications. Conclusions and Relevance: In this matched cohort study, surgical mortality and complications were higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19. These data suggest that, whenever possible, surgery should be postponed in patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Surgical Procedures, Operative/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors