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1.
The New Microbiologica ; 44(4):245, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1696108

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study describes demographics and outcomes of adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to our ward during the first wave (from February 25 to May 30, 2020) and during the second wave (from August 5 to November 30, 2020). The primary study objective was to evaluate overall in-hospital mortality, which was 21.1% (60/285) vs 10.3% (27/261) (p=.0006). This study seems to corroborate and expand the concept that the second wave of COVID-19 was less deadly than the first. Despite some limitations, the clinical and managerial experience gained during the first wave trained us to handle and control the second one.

2.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(2): 149-162, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672443

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop pulmonary bacterial coinfection or superinfection, that could unfavorably impact their prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The exact burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lung infection in peculiar populations such as patients with COVID-19 remains somewhat elusive, possibly because of wide heterogeneity in methods and endpoints across studies. SUMMARY: There was important heterogeneity in the retrieved literature on the epidemiology of MRSA lung infection in patients with COVID-19, both when considering all other bacteria as the denominator (relative prevalence ranging from 2% to 29%) and when considering only S. aureus as the denominator (relative prevalence ranging from 11% to 65%). Overall, MRSA is among the most frequent causative agents of pulmonary infection in patients with COVID-19. Improving our ability to rapidly reach etiological diagnosis of bacterial lung infection in COVID-19 patients remains fundamental if we are to improve the rates of appropriate antibiotic therapy in patients with COVID-19 and concomitant/superimposed MRSA infection, at the same time avoiding antibiotic overuse in line with antimicrobial stewardship principles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 94: 39-44, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of this study is that tocilizumab should affect common signs of infection due to its immunosuppressive properties. Primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the administration of tocilizumab to critically ill patients with COVID-19, led to a different clinical presentation of infectious complications compared to patients who did not receive tocilizumab. Secondary aim was investigating differences in laboratory parameters between groups. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective study, enrolling COVID-19 patients who developed a microbiologically confirmed infectious complication [ventilator associated pneumonia or bloodstream infection] after intensive care unit [ICU] admission and either treated with tocilizumab or not [controls]. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included, 25 treated with tocilizumab and 33 controls. Median time from tocilizumab administration to infection onset was 10 days [range 2-26]. Patients were 78% male, with median age 65 years [range 45-79]. At first clinical presentation of the infectious event, the frequency of hypotension [11/25, 44% vs. 11/33, 33%], fever [8/25, 32% vs. 10/33, 30%] or hypothermia [0/25,0%, vs. 2/33, 6%], and oxygen desaturation [6/25, 28% vs 4/33, 12%], as well as the frequency of SOFA score increase of ≥ 2 points [4/25, 16%,vs. 4/33, 12%] was similar in tocilizumab treated patients and controls [p>0.1 for all comparisons]. Among laboratory parameters, C-Reactive Protein elevation was reduced in tocilizumab treated patients compared to controls [8/25, 32% vs. 22/33, 67%, p=0.009]. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of infectious complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU were not affected by tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288790

ABSTRACT

A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the use of ceftaroline in a large teaching hospital in Northern Italy, during a period also including the first months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The primary objective was to describe the use of ceftaroline in terms of indications and characteristics of patients. A secondary objective was to describe the rate of favorable clinical response in patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-BSI) receiving ceftaroline. Overall, 200 patients were included in the study. Most of them had COVID-19 (83%, 165/200) and were hospitalized in medical wards (78%, 155/200). Included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were given empirical ceftaroline in the suspicion of bacterial co-infection or superinfection. Among patients with MRSA-BSI, ceftaroline was used as a first-line therapy and salvage therapy in 25% (3/12) and 75% (9/12) of cases, respectively, and as a monotherapy or in combination with daptomycin in 58% (7/12) and 42% (5/12) of patients, respectively. A favorable response was registered in 67% (8/12) of patients. Improving etiological diagnosis of bacterial infections is essential to optimize the use of ceftaroline in COVID-19 patients. The use of ceftaroline for MRSA-BSI, either as a monotherapy or in combination with other anti-MRSA agents, showed promising rates of favorable response.

5.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024612

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to evaluate if an independent association exists between liver enzyme elevations (LEE) and the risk of mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients with COVID-19. This was a single-center observational study, recruiting all consecutive adults with COVID-19. The elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to the highest level between COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital discharge was categorized according to a standardized toxicity grade scale. In total, 799 patients were included in this study, 39% of which were female, with a mean age of 69.9 (±16.0) years. Of these patients, 225 (28.1%) developed LEE of grade ≥2 after a median of three days (interquartile range (IQR): 0-8 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19, and they were estimated to have a higher hazard of death or ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.88). The clinical and laboratory variables associated with the development of LEE were male sex, higher respiratory rate, higher gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and lower albumin levels at baseline. Among the analyzed treatments, steroids, tocilizumab and darunavir/ritonavir correlated with LEE. In conclusion, LEE were associated with mortality and ICU admission among COVID-19 patients. While the origin of LEE is probably multifactorial, LEE evaluation could add information to the clinical and laboratory variables that are commonly evaluated during the course of COVID-19.

7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1537-1544, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics, management and outcome of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); and to evaluate risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study from a University tertiary care hospital in northern Italy, included hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between 25 February 2020 and 25 March 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 317 individuals were enrolled. Their median age was 71 years and 67.2% were male (213/317). The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (149/317; 47.0%), cardiovascular disease (63/317; 19.9%) and diabetes (49/317; 15.5%). Common symptoms at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis included fever (285/317; 89.9%), shortness of breath (167/317; 52.7%) and dry cough (156/317; 49.2%). An 'atypical' presentation including at least one among mental confusion, diarrhoea or nausea and vomiting was observed in 53/317 patients (16.7%). Hypokalaemia occurred in 25.8% (78/302) and 18.5% (56/303) had acute kidney injury. During hospitalization, 111/317 patients (35.0%) received non-invasive respiratory support, 65/317 (20.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 60/317 (18.5%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. All-cause in-hospital mortality, assessed in 275 patients, was 43.6% (120/275). On multivariable analysis, age (per-year increase OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10; p < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.07-6.25; p 0.03), and C-reactive protein levels (per-point increase OR 1.009; 95% CI 1.004-1.014; p 0.001) were independent risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mainly affected elderly patients with predisposing conditions and caused severe illness, frequently requiring non-invasive respiratory support or ICU admission. Despite supportive care, COVID-19 remains associated with a substantial risk of all-cause in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237831, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725099

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to respiratory failure due to severe immune response. Treatment targeting this immune response might be beneficial but there is limited evidence on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine if early treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with tocilizumab and/or steroids was associated with better outcome. METHODS: This observational single-center study included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were not intubated and received either standard of care (SOC, controls) or SOC plus early (within 3 days from hospital admission) anti-inflammatory treatment. SOC consisted of hydroxychloroquine 400mg bid plus, in those admitted before March 24th, also darunavir/ritonavir. Anti-inflammatory treatment consisted of either tocilizumab (8mg/kg intravenously or 162mg subcutaneously) or methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg for 5 days or both. Failure was defined as intubation or death, and the endpoints were failure-free survival (primary endpoint) and overall survival (secondary) at day 30. Difference between the groups was estimated as Hazard Ratio by a propensity score weighted Cox regression analysis (HROW). RESULTS: Overall, 196 adults were included in the analyses. They were mainly male (67.4%), with comorbidities (78.1%) and severe COVID-19 pneumonia (83.7%). Median age was 67.9 years (range, 30-100) and median PaO2/FiO2 200 mmHg (IQR 133-289). Among them, 130 received early anti-inflammatory treatment with: tocilizumab (n = 29, 22.3%), methylprednisolone (n = 45, 34.6%), or both (n = 56, 43.1%). The adjusted failure-free survival among tocilizumab/methylprednisolone/SOC treated patients vs. SOC was 80.8% (95%CI, 72.8-86.7) vs. 64.1% (95%CI, 51.3-74.0), HROW 0.48, 95%CI, 0.23-0.99; p = 0.049. The overall survival among tocilizumab/methylprednisolone/SOC patients vs. SOC was 85.9% (95%CI, 80.7-92.6) vs. 71.9% (95%CI, 46-73), HROW 0.41, 95%CI: 0.19-0.89, p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: Early adjunctive treatment with tocilizumab, methylprednisolone or both may improve outcomes in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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