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2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to assess predictors of negative antibody response (AbR) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients after the first booster of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: Solid organ transplant recipients receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were prospectively enrolled (March 2021-January 2022) at six hospitals in Italy and Spain. AbR was assessed at first dose (t0), second dose (t1), 3 ± 1 month (t2), and 1 month after third dose (t3). Negative AbR at t3 was defined as an anti-receptor binding domain titre <45 BAU/mL. Machine learning models were developed to predict the individual risk of negative (vs. positive) AbR using age, type of transplant, time between transplant and vaccination, immunosuppressive drugs, type of vaccine, and graft function as covariates, subsequently assessed using a validation cohort. RESULTS: Overall, 1615 SOT recipients (1072 [66.3%] males; mean age±standard deviation [SD], 57.85 ± 13.77) were enrolled, and 1211 received three vaccination doses. Negative AbR rate decreased from 93.66% (886/946) to 21.90% (202/923) from t0 to t3. Univariate analysis showed that older patients (mean age, 60.21 ± 11.51 vs. 58.11 ± 13.08), anti-metabolites (57.9% vs. 35.1%), steroids (52.9% vs. 38.5%), recent transplantation (<3 years) (17.8% vs. 2.3%), and kidney, heart, or lung compared with liver transplantation (25%, 31.8%, 30.4% vs. 5.5%) had a higher likelihood of negative AbR. Machine learning (ML) algorithms showing best prediction performance were logistic regression (precision-recall curve-PRAUC mean 0.37 [95%CI 0.36-0.39]) and k-Nearest Neighbours (PRAUC 0.36 [0.35-0.37]). DISCUSSION: Almost a quarter of SOT recipients showed negative AbR after first booster dosage. Unfortunately, clinical information cannot efficiently predict negative AbR even with ML algorithms.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(10): 1761-1767, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is associated with poorer antibody response (AbR) compared with non-SOT recipients. However, its impact on the risk of breakthrough infection (BI) has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Single-center prospective longitudinal cohort study enrolling adult SOT recipients who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during a 1-year period (February 2021 - January 2022), end of follow-up April 2022. Patients were tested for AbR at multiple time points. The primary end-point was BI (laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection ≥14 days after the second dose). Immunization (positive AbR) was considered an intermediate state between vaccination and BI. Probabilities of being in vaccination, immunization, and BI states were obtained for each type of graft and vaccination sequence using multistate survival analysis. Then, multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze the risk of BI related to AbR levels. RESULTS: 614 SOT (275 kidney, 163 liver, 137 heart, 39 lung) recipients were included. Most patients (84.7%) received 3 vaccine doses. The first 2 consisted of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 in 73.5% and 26.5% of cases, respectively. For the third dose, mRNA-1273 was administered in 59.8% of patients. Overall, 75.4% of patients reached immunization and 18.4% developed BI. Heart transplant recipients showed the lowest probability of immunization (0.418) and the highest of BI (0.323); all mRNA-1273 vaccine sequences showed the highest probability of immunization (0.732) and the lowest of BI (0.098). Risk of BI was higher for non-high-level AbR, younger age, and shorter time from transplant. CONCLUSIONS: SOT patients with non-high-level AbR and shorter time from transplantation and heart recipients are at highest risk of BI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunity , Longitudinal Studies , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines
4.
Microorganisms ; 11(3)2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271168

ABSTRACT

Patients with heart transplantation (HT) have an increased risk of COVID-19 disease and the efficacy of vaccines on antibody induction is lower, even after three or four doses. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of four doses on infections and their interplay with immunosuppression. We included in this retrospective study all adult HT patients (12/21-11/22) without prior infection receiving a third or fourth dose of mRNA vaccine. The endpoints were infections and the combined incidence of ICU hospitalizations/death after the last dose (6-month survival rate). Among 268 patients, 62 had an infection, and 27.3% received four doses. Following multivariate analysis, three vs. four doses, mycophenolate (MMF) therapy, and HT < 5 years were associated with an increased risk of infection. MMF ≥ 2000 mg/day independently predicted infection, together with the other variables, and was associated with ICU hospitalization/death. Patients on MMF had lower levels of anti-RBD antibodies, and a positive antibody response after the third dose was associated with a lower probability of infection. In HT patients, a fourth dose of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of infection at six months. Mycophenolate, particularly at high doses, reduces the clinical effectiveness of the fourth dose and the antibody response to the vaccine.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 43(23): 2237-2246, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188653

ABSTRACT

Heart transplantation is advocated in selected patients with advanced heart failure in the absence of contraindications. Principal challenges in heart transplantation centre around an insufficient and underutilized donor organ pool, the need to individualize titration of immunosuppressive therapy, and to minimize late complications such as cardiac allograft vasculopathy, malignancy, and renal dysfunction. Advances have served to increase the organ donor pool by advocating the use of donors with underlying hepatitis C virus infection and by expanding the donor source to use hearts donated after circulatory death. New techniques to preserve the donor heart over prolonged ischaemic times, and enabling longer transport times in a safe manner, have been introduced. Mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation has allowed patients with advanced heart failure to avoid progressive deterioration in hepato-renal function while awaiting an optimal donor organ match. The management of the heart transplantation recipient remains a challenge despite advances in immunosuppression, which provide early gains in rejection avoidance but are associated with infections and late-outcome challenges. In this article, we review contemporary advances and challenges in this field to focus on donor recovery strategies, left ventricular assist devices, and immunosuppressive monitoring therapies with the potential to enhance outcomes. We also describe opportunities for future discovery to include a renewed focus on long-term survival, which continues to be an area that is under-studied and poorly characterized, non-human sources of organs for transplantation including xenotransplantation as well as chimeric transplantation, and technology competitive to human heart transplantation, such as tissue engineering.


Subject(s)
Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Transplantation/methods , Humans , Tissue Donors
8.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933951

ABSTRACT

Infections are leading causes of morbidity/mortality following solid organ transplantation (SOT) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) is among the most frequent pathogens, causing a considerable threat to SOT recipients. A survey was conducted 19 July-31 October 2019 to capture clinical practices about CMV in SOT recipients (e.g., how practices aligned with guidelines, how adequately treatments met patients' needs, and respondents' expectations for future developments). Transplant professionals completed a ∼30-minute online questionnaire: 224 responses were included, representing 160 hospitals and 197 SOT programs (41 countries; 167[83%] European programs). Findings revealed a heterogenous approach to CMV diagnosis and management and, sometimes, significant divergence from international guidelines. Valganciclovir prophylaxis (of variable duration) was administered by 201/224 (90%) respondents in D+/R- SOT and by 40% in R+ cases, with pre-emptive strategies generally reserved for R+ cases: DNA thresholds to initiate treatment ranged across 10-10,000 copies/ml. Ganciclovir-resistant CMV strains were still perceived as major challenges, and tailored treatment was one of the most important unmet needs for CMV management. These findings may help to design studies to evaluate safety and efficacy of new strategies to prevent CMV disease in SOT recipients, and target specific educational activities to harmonize CMV management in this challenging population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Organ Transplantation , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transplant Recipients
9.
Microorganisms ; 10(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855707

ABSTRACT

Previous studies assessing the antibody response (AbR) to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are limited by short follow-up, hampering the analysis of AbR kinetics. We present the ORCHESTRA SOT recipients cohort assessed for AbR at first dose (t0), second dose (t1), and within 3 ± 1 month (t2) after the first dose. We analyzed 1062 SOT patients (kidney, 63.7%; liver, 17.4%; heart, 16.7%; and lung, 2.5%) and 5045 health care workers (HCWs). The AbR rates in the SOTs and HCWs were 52.3% and 99.4%. The antibody levels were significantly higher in the HCWs than in the SOTs (p < 0.001). The kinetics showed an increase (p < 0.001) in antibody levels up to 76 days and a non-significant decrease after 118 days in the SOT recipients versus a decrease up to 76 days (p = 0.02) and a less pronounced decrease between 76 and 118 days (p = 0.04) in the HCWs. Upon multivariable analysis, liver transplant, ≥3 years from SOT, mRNA-1273, azathioprine, and longer time from t0 were associated with a positive AbR at t2. Older age, other comorbidities, mycophenolate, steroids, and impaired graft function were associated with lower AbR probability. Our results may be useful to optimize strategies of immune monitoring after COVID-19 vaccination and indications regarding timing for booster dosages calibrated on SOT patients' characteristics.

10.
J Artif Organs ; 25(2): 155-157, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469701

ABSTRACT

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support in donors may contribute in preserving proper haemodynamics and systemic perfusion during organ retrieval thus decreasing the risk of multiple organ injury. This is an option to expand the current organ supply. We report on intra-abdominal organs procurement strategy in a selected LVAD recipient who suffered a fatal cerebrovascular accident at the time of COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. The liver and kidneys grafts have been successfully transplanted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart-Assist Devices , Brain Death , Humans , Pandemics , Tissue and Organ Harvesting
12.
Transpl Int ; 34(2): 220-223, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066770

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 challenges to keep a valuable educational offer with lockdown measures and social distancing are reviewed. Scientific Societies had to think of new alternatives to maintain meetings with conversion to a virtual format and development of online resources, rapidly available and broadly accessible. Other in person activities as face-to-face clinics have been substituted by telemedicine; the same happened with surgical training in theatre, given the suspension of most of the operations. Finally, the need to share and communicate in a continuous evolving scenario, has impacted negatively the integrity of peer review process, not following the normal procedures to ensure scientific integrity and reproducibility in the earliest phases of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Specialties, Surgical/education , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peer Review, Research/standards , Peer Review, Research/trends , Periodicals as Topic/standards , Periodicals as Topic/trends , Physical Distancing
13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 52-61, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical course and outcomes of all heart transplant recipients affected by coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who were followed at the leading heart transplant centers of Northern Italy. BACKGROUND: The worldwide severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has created unprecedented challenges for public health, demanding exceptional efforts for the successful management and treatment of affected patients. Heart transplant patients represent a unique cohort of chronically immunosuppressed subjects in which SARS-CoV-2 may stimulate an unpredictable clinical course of infection. METHODS: Since February 2020, we enrolled all 47 cases (79% male) in a first cohort of patients, with a mean age of 61.8 ± 14.5 years, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, out of 2,676 heart transplant recipients alive before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic at 7 heart transplant centers in Northern Italy. RESULTS: To date, 38 patients required hospitalization while 9 remained self-home quarantined and 14 died. Compared to the general population, prevalence (18 vs. 7 cases per 1,000) and related case fatality rate (29.7% vs. 15.4%) in heart transplant recipients were doubled. Univariable analysis showed older age (p = 0.002), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.040), extracardiac arteriopathy (p = 0.040), previous PCI (p = 0.040), CAV score (p = 0.039), lower GFR (p = 0.004), and higher NYHA functional classes (p = 0.023) were all significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. During the follow-up two patients died and a third patient has prolonged viral-shedding alternating positive and negative swabs. Since July 1st, 2020, we had 6 new patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 5 patients asymptomatic were self-quarantined, while 1 is still hospitalized for pneumonia. A standard therapy was maintained for all, except for the hospitalized patient. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 should spur clinicians to immediately refer heart transplant recipients suspected as having SARS-CoV2 infection to centers specializing in the care of this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart Transplantation , Pandemics , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(7): 619-626, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-580235

ABSTRACT

To understand the challenges for thoracic transplantation and mechanical circulatory support during the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we propose separating the effects of the pandemic into 5 distinct stages from a healthcare system perspective. We discuss how the classical ethical principles of utility, justice, and efficiency may need to be adapted, and we give specific recommendations for thoracic transplantation and mechanical circulatory support centers to balance their clinical decisions and strategies for advanced heart and lung disease during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Assisted Circulation/ethics , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/ethics , Heart Transplantation/ethics , Lung Transplantation/ethics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Selection/ethics , SARS-CoV-2
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