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1.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 144: 106975, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is implicated by active endotheliitis, and cardiovascular morbidity. The long-COVID-19 syndrome implications in atherosclerosis have not been elucidated yet. We assessed the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of COVID-19 on endothelial function. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at the medical ward or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were enrolled and followed up to 6 months post-hospital discharge. Medical history and laboratory examinations were performed while the endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Comparison with propensity score-matched cohort (control group) was performed at the acute (upon hospital admission) and follow-up (1 and 6 months) stages. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (37% admitted in ICU) were recruited. FMD was significantly (p < 0.001) impaired in the COVID-19 group (1.65 ± 2.31%) compared to the control (6.51 ± 2.91%). ICU-treated subjects presented significantly impaired (p = 0.001) FMD (0.48 ± 1.01%) compared to those treated in the medical ward (2.33 ± 2.57%). During hospitalization, FMD was inversely associated with Interleukin-6 and Troponin I (p < 0.05 for all). Although, a significant improvement in FMD was noted during the follow-up (acute: 1.75 ± 2.19% vs. 1 month: 4.23 ± 2.02%, vs. 6 months: 5.24 ± 1.62%; p = 0.001), FMD remained impaired compared to control (6.48 ± 3.08%) at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 6 months (p = 0.01) post-hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients develop a notable endothelial dysfunction, which is progressively improved over a 6-month follow-up but remains impaired compared to healthy controls subjects. Whether chronic dysregulation of endothelial function following COVID-19 could be accompanied by a residual risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic events merits further research.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637975

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease outbreaks had a significant impact on shaping the societies and cultures throughout human history [...].

3.
In Vivo ; 36(1): 361-370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Evidence suggests a beneficial effect of prone positioning (PP) in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analysis of individual (7 investigators' groups) and aggregate data (PubMed/EMBASE) regarding the impact of PP on the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PO2/FiO2) in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 121 patients (mean age±SD 59.1±10.7 years, 55% males, 57% intubated) the mean post-versus pre- PP PO2/FiO2 difference was: (i) 50.4±64.3 mmHg, p<0.01, (ii) similar in awake (58.7±72.1 mmHg) versus intubated patients (44.1±57.5 mmHg, p=NS), (iii) inversely correlated with body mass index (r=-0.43, p<0.01). Meta-analysis of 23 studies (n=547, weighted age 58.3±4.1, 73% males, 59% intubated) showed a pooled PO2/FiO2 difference of 61.8 [95% confidence intervals=49.9-73.6] mmHg. Meta-regression analysis revealed no associations with baseline demographics, the time in PP before assessment, and the risk of bias of the studies. CONCLUSION: PP seems to improve oxygenation of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxygen , Prone Position , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
4.
In Vivo ; 36(1): 381-383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study analyzed the characteristics of patients with COVID-19 with major events during the first days of hospitalization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from consecutive patients admitted to two hospitals in Athens, Greece. The characteristics of patients with COVID-19 who suffered the primary endpoint (venous thromboembolic events, intubation, and death) during the first days of hospitalization were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 95 patients included in the analysis, 21 presented with major adverse events during a median follow-up of 13 days. More than 50% of these patients presented with a major event during the first 3 days. Anticoagulation treatment was inversely associated with the cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint [hazard ratio=0.16 (95% confidence interval=0.06-0.47)]. Patients with major events were older, with lower baseline SatO2, and higher number of Wells' criteria and Charlson comorbidity index. Among these patients, those with hypertension were at higher risk for early occurrence of events (≤ first three days of hospitalization). CONCLUSION: Major adverse events may occur early in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with a high-risk profile. Anticoagulation treatment appears to reduce this risk and thus prompt thromboprophylaxis should be employed in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
5.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(2): 154-167, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a beneficial effective of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors on the outcomes of COVID-19 disease, which, however is not validated by all studies. AIMS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing reports to investigate the impact of anti-TNF treatments on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search at PubMed and SCOPUS databases using specific keywords was performed. All reports of COVID-19 outcomes for patients receiving anti-TNF therapy by September 2021 were included. Pooled effect measures were calculated using a random-effects model. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale for observational studies was used to assess bias. Studies that were not eligible for meta-analysis were described qualitatively. RESULTS: In total, 84 studies were included in the systematic review, and 35 were included in the meta-analysis. Patients receiving anti-TNF treatment, compared to non-anti-TNF, among COVID-19 cases had a lower probability of hospitalisation (eight studies, 2555 patients, pooled OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42-0.67, I2  = 0) and severe disease defined as intensive care unit admission or death (two studies, 1823 patients, pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.96, I2  = 0), after adjustment for validated predictors of adverse disease outcomes. No difference was found for the risk for hospitalisation due to COVID-19 in populations without COVID-19 for patients receiving anti-TNF treatment compared to non-anti-TNF (three studies, 5 994 958 participants, pooled risk ratio = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.68-1.39, I2  = 20) adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: TNF-α inhibitors are associated with a lower probability of hospitalisation and severe COVID-19 when compared to any other treatment for an underlying inflammatory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Comorbidity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542609

ABSTRACT

Thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has been associated with a survival benefit and is strongly recommended. However, the optimal dose of thromboprophylaxis remains unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed/EMBASE) of studies comparing high (intermediate or therapeutic dose) versus standard (prophylactic dose) intensity of thrombo-prophylaxis with regard to outcome of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was performed. Randomized and non-randomized studies that provided adjusted effect size estimates were included. Meta-analysis of 7 studies comparing intermediate versus prophylactic dose of thromboprophylaxis (2 randomized and 5 observational, n = 2009, weighted age 61 years, males 61%, ICU 53%) revealed a pooled adjusted relative risk (RR) for death at 0.56 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.34, 0.92) in favor of the intermediate dose. For the same comparison arms, the pooled RR for venous thromboembolism was 0.84 (95% CI 0.54, 1.31), and for major bleeding events was 1.63 (95% CI 0.79, 3.37). Meta-analysis of 17 studies comparing therapeutic versus prophylactic dose of thromboprophylaxis (2 randomized and 15 observational, n = 7776, weighted age 64 years, males 54%, ICU 21%) revealed a pooled adjusted RR for death at 0.73 (95% CI 0.47, 1.14) for the therapeutic dose. An opposite trend was observed in the unadjusted analysis of 15 observational studies (RR 1.24 (95% CI 0.88, 1.74)). For the same comparison arms, the pooled RR for venous thromboembolism was 1.13 (95% CI 0.52, 2.48), and for major bleeding events 3.32 (95% CI 2.51, 4.40). In conclusion, intermediate compared with standard prophylactic dose of thromboprophylaxis appears to be rather safe and is associated with additional survival benefit, although most data are derived from observational retrospective analyses. Randomized studies are needed to define the optimal thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444240

ABSTRACT

The role of immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has been of increasing interest. Anakinra, an interleukin-1 inhibitor, has been shown to offer significant clinical benefits in patients with COVID-19 and hyperinflammation. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the impact of anakinra on the outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Studies, randomized or non-randomized with adjustment for confounders, reporting on the adjusted risk of death in patients treated with anakinra versus those not treated with anakinra were deemed eligible. A search was performed in PubMed/EMBASE databases, as well as in relevant websites, until 1 August 2021. The meta-analysis of six studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria (n = 1553 patients with moderate to severe pneumonia, weighted age 64 years, men 66%, treated with anakinra 50%, intubated 3%) showed a pooled hazard ratio for death in patients treated with anakinra at 0.47 (95% confidence intervals 0.34, 0.65). A meta-regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between the mean age, percentage of males, mean baseline C-reactive protein levels, mean time of administration since symptoms onset among the included studies and the hazard ratios for death. All studies were considered as low risk of bias. The current evidence, although derived mainly from observational studies, supports a beneficial role of anakinra in the treatment of selected patients with COVID-19.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438752

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 has proven to be highly effective, but there is a paucity of data regarding immunogenicity factors and comparison between response to vaccination and natural infection. This study included 871 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW) and 181 patients with natural infection. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 against the RBD domain of the spike protein (anti-RBD). Samples were collected 1-2 weeks after vaccination or 15-59 days post-onset of symptoms. Post-vaccine anti-RBD concentrations were associated with age, gender, vaccination side-effects (VSE) and prior infection (Pr-CoV). Anti-RBD median levels (95%CI) were lower by 2466 (651-5583), 6228 (3254-9203) and 7651 (4479-10,823) AU/mL in 35-44, 45-54, 55-70 yrs, respectively, compared with the 18-34 yrs group. In females, the median levels were higher by 2823 (859-4787), 5024 (3122-6926) in individuals with VSE, and 9971 (5158-14,783) AU/mL in HCWs with Pr-CoV. The ratio of anti-RBD in vaccinated individuals versus those with natural infection varied from 1.0 to 19.4. The high immunogenicity of BNT162b2 is verified, although its sustainability has yet to be elucidated. The use of comparative data from natural infection serological panels, expressing the clinical heterogeneity of natural infection, may facilitate early decisions for candidate vaccines to be evaluated in clinical trials.

9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2333-2351, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345213

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The anti-inflammatory effect of macrolides prompted the study of oral clarithromycin in moderate COVID-19. METHODS: An open-label non-randomized trial in 90 patients with COVID-19 of moderate severity was conducted between May and October 2020. The primary endpoint was defined at the end of treatment (EOT) as no need for hospital re-admission and no progression into lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for patients with upper respiratory tract infection and as at least 50% decrease of the respiratory symptoms score without progression into severe respiratory failure (SRF) for patients with LRTI. Viral load, biomarkers, the function of mononuclear cells and safety were assessed. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was attained in 86.7% of patients treated with clarithromycin (95% CIs 78.1-92.2%); this was 91.7% and 81.4% among patients starting clarithromycin the first 5 days from symptoms onset or later (odds ratio after multivariate analysis 6.62; p 0.030). The responses were better for patients infected by non-B1.1 variants. Clarithromycin use was associated with decreases in circulating C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6; by increase of production of interferon-gamma and decrease of production of interleukin-6 by mononuclear cells; and by suppression of SARS-CoV-2 viral load. No safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Early clarithromycin treatment provides most of the clinical improvement in moderate COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04398004.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 330: 114-121, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Statin therapy is administered to patients with high cardiovascular risk. These patients are also at risk for severe course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Statins exhibit not only cardioprotective but also immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. This study performed a systematic review of published evidence regarding statin treatment and COVID-19 related mortality. METHODS: A systematic PubMed/Embase search was performed from February 10, 2020 until March 05, 2021 for studies in COVID-19 patients that reported adjusted hazard or odds ratio for death in statin users versus non-users. RESULTS: 22 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Meta-analysis of 10 studies (n = 41,807, weighted age 56 ± 8 years, men 51%, hypertension 34%, diabetes 21%, statin users 14%) that reported adjusted hazard ratios for mortality in statin users versus non-users showed pooled estimate at 0.65 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.53, 0.81). Meta-analysis of 6 studies that reported continuation of statin therapy during hospitalization (58-100% of patients) revealed a pooled hazard ratio of 0.54 (95% CI 0.47, 0.62). Meta-analysis of 12 studies (n = 72,881, weighted age 65 ± 2 years, men 54%, hypertension 66%, diabetes 43%, statin users 30%) that reported adjusted odds ratios for mortality showed pooled estimate at 0.65 (95% CI 0.55, 0.78). Multivariable meta-regression analysis did not reveal any significant association of hazard or odds ratios with anthropometric characteristics or comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of retrospective observational studies showed that statin therapy was associated with an about 35% decrease in the adjusted risk of mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Aged , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1081-1095, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274998

ABSTRACT

In light of the accumulating evidence for survival benefit coming from the use of macrolides for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a group of experts from the field of internal medicine and infectious diseases frame a position statement on the use of macrolides for the management of bacterial CAP and for infection by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The statement is framed taking into consideration existing publications and own research experience. The main content of this statement is that the combination of one ß-lactam and a macrolide should be the first treatment of choice for patients with severe bacterial CAP. Severity is assessed as scoring 2 or more points on the CURB65 scoring system of severity or as pneumonia severity index III to V or C-reactive protein more than 150 mg/l; the suggested macrolide is either azithromycin or clarithromycin. The experts also suggest that in COVID-19 pneumonia, the combination of one ß-lactam and a macrolide should be reserved only when there is strong suspicion of bacterial co-infection.

13.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(8): 967-971, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263626

ABSTRACT

Introduction The art of clinical examination has been the cornerstone of medical practices since ancient years. Recent technological achievements and their overuse have led falsely to underestimation of their significance, which has been further questioned during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to concerns regarding exposure risk and use of personal protective equipment.Areas covered The role of clinical examination (namely chest examination) during the pandemic is discussed. Emerging evidence is being accumulated concerning alternatives to traditional practices. Telemedicine stands out as a promising tool, allowing inspection and interaction between physicians and patients, proved to be useful for many medical specialties but not enough for some others. Medical practices cannot remain the same in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, yet realistic strategies should be adopted for their optimal and safe implementation.Expert opinion The experiences of a dedicated Reference Center for COVID-19 along with a suggested algorithm for conducting clinical examinations are presented. According to our experience, an initial detailed clinical examination upon admission of each COVID-19 patient appears to be necessary. Then, vital signs and signs of respiratory distress using inspection should be checked frequently. A focused examination approach should be adopted, in case of new onset clinical problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Elife ; 102021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121691

ABSTRACT

Background: It was studied if early suPAR-guided anakinra treatment can prevent severe respiratory failure (SRF) of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 130 patients with suPAR ≥6 ng/ml were assigned to subcutaneous anakinra 100 mg once daily for 10 days. Primary outcome was SRF incidence by day 14 defined as any respiratory ratio below 150 mmHg necessitating mechanical or non-invasive ventilation. Main secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and inflammatory mediators; 28-day WHO-CPS was explored. Propensity-matched standard-of care comparators were studied. Results: 22.3% with anakinra treatment and 59.2% comparators (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20-0.46) progressed into SRF; 30-day mortality was 11.5% and 22.3% respectively (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Anakinra was associated with decrease in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, sCD163 and sIL2-R; IL-10/IL-6 ratio on day 7 was inversely associated with SOFA score; patients were allocated to less severe WHO-CPS strata. Conclusions: Early suPAR-guided anakinra decreased SRF and restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Funding: This study was funded by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis, Technomar Shipping Inc, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, and the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. Clinical trial number: NCT04357366.


People infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, can develop severe respiratory failure and require a ventilator to keep breathing, but this does not happen to every infected individual. Measuring a blood protein called suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) may help identify patients at the greatest risk of developing severe respiratory failure and requiring a ventilator. Previous investigations have suggested that measuring suPAR can identify pneumonia patients at highest risk for developing respiratory failure. The protein can be measured by taking a blood sample, and its levels provide a snapshot of how the body's immune system is reacting to infection, and of how it may respond to treatment. Anakinra is a drug that forms part of a class of medications called interleukin antagonists. It is commonly prescribed alone or in combination with other medications to reduce pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Kyriazopoulou et al. investigated whether treating COVID-19 patients who had developed pneumonia with anakinra could prevent the use of a ventilator and lower the risk of death. The findings show that treating COVID-19 patients with an injection of 100 milligrams of anakinra for ten days may be an effective approach because the drug combats inflammation. Kyriazopoulou et al. examined various markers of the immune response and discovered that anakinra was able to improve immune function, protecting a significant number of patients from going on a ventilator. The drug was also found to be safe and cause no significant adverse side effects. Administering anakinra decreased of the risk of progression into severe respiratory failure by 70%, and reduced death rates significantly. These results suggest that it may be beneficial to use suPAR as an early biomarker for identifying those individuals at highest risk for severe respiratory failure, and then treat them with anakinra. While the findings are promising, they must be validated in larger studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
15.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(6): 723-730, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060315

ABSTRACT

The 2020 International Web Scientific Event in COVID-19 pandemic in critically ill patients aimed at updating the information and knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic in the intensive care unit. Experts reviewed the latest literature relating to the COVID-19 pandemic in critically ill patients, such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, phenotypes of infection, COVID-19 as a systematic infection, molecular diagnosis, mechanical ventilation, thromboprophylaxis, COVID-19 associated co-infections, immunotherapy, plasma treatment, catheter-related bloodstream infections, artificial intelligence for COVID-19, and vaccination. Antiviral therapy and co-infections are out of the scope of this review. In this review, each of these issues is discussed with key messages regarding management and further research being presented after a brief review of available evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Congresses as Topic , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics , Phenotype , Symptom Assessment , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Videoconferencing , Virus Internalization
16.
In Vivo ; 35(1): 653-661, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the efficacy (prognosis, coagulation/inflammation biomarkers) and safety (bleeding events) of different anticoagulation dosages in COVID-19 inpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: COVID-19 inpatients (Athens, Greece) were included. The "Enhanced dose THRomboprophylaxis in Admissions (ETHRA)" protocol was applied in certain Departments, suggesting the use of intermediate anticoagulation dosage. The primary endpoint was a composite of intubation/venous thromboembolism/death. Inflammation/coagulation parameters were assessed. RESULTS: Among 127 admissions, 95 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one events (4 deaths, 17 intubations) were observed. Regression analysis demonstrated significant reduction of events with intermediate or therapeutic dosage [HR=0.16 (95%CI=0.05-0.52) p=0.002; HR=0.17 (0.04-0.71) p=0.015, respectively]. D-Dimer values were higher in those who met the composite endpoint. Intermediate dosage treatment was associated with decreased values of ferritin. Three patients (3%) had minor hemorrhagic complications. CONCLUSION: Anticoagulation treatment (particularly intermediate dosage) appears to have positive impact on COVID-19 inpatients' prognosis by inhibiting both coagulation and inflammatory cascades.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Greece , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004438

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Greece is a country with limited spread of SARS-CoV-2 and cumulative infection attack rate of 0.12% (95% CI 0.06-0.26). Health care workers (HCWs) are a well-recognized risk group for COVID-19. The study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a nosocomial setting and assess potential risk factors. METHODS: HCWs from two hospitals participated in the study. Hospital-1 was a tertiary university affiliated center, involved in the care of COVID-19 patients while hospital-2 was a tertiary specialized cardiac surgery center not involved in the care of these patients. A validated, CE, rapid, IgM/IgG antibody point-of-care test was used. Comparative performance with a reference globally available assay was assessed. RESULTS: 1,495 individuals consented to participate (response rate 77%). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 weighted prevalence was 1.26% (95% CI 0.43, 3.26) overall and 0.53% (95% CI 0.06, 2.78) and 2.70% (95% CI 0.57, 9.19) in hospital-1 and hospital-2, respectively although the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences. The overall, hospital-1, and hospital-2 seroprevalence was 10, 4 and 22 times higher than the estimated infection attack rate in general population, respectively. Suboptimal use of personal protective equipment was noted in both hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: These data have implications for the preparedness of a second wave of COVID-19 epidemic, given the low burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection rate, in concordance with national projections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Br J Haematol ; 189(5): 846-847, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72394

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence shows that severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be complicated with coagulopathy, namely disseminated intravascular coagulation, which has a rather prothrombotic character with high risk of venous thromboembolism. The incidence of venous thromboembolism among COVID-19 patients in intensive care units appears to be somewhat higher compared to that reported in other studies including such patients with other disease conditions. D-dimer might help in early recognition of these high-risk patients and also predict outcome. Preliminary data show that in patients with severe COVID-19, anticoagulant therapy appears to be associated with lower mortality in the subpopulation meeting sepsis-induced coagulopathy criteria or with markedly elevated d-dimer. Recent recommendations suggest that all hospitalized COVID-19 patients should receive thromboprophylaxis, or full therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation if such an indication is present.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
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