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1.
JEADV Clinical Practice ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1913856

ABSTRACT

After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became widespread around the world, several vaccines have been developed with variable efficacy and potency and based on different platforms to control the pandemic. One of these vaccines is Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), which is an inactivated virus that was released by Sinopharm's Beijing institute in the summer of 2020. The most commonly reported side effects of the Sinopharm vaccine have included pain at the injection site, muscle pain, headache and fatigue. Dermatological reactions are also reported as less common and were mainly local injection site reactions. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare and unusual adverse effect and accounts for less than 1% of all severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine-related cutaneous manifestations. FDE has not been reported following the COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. Here, we describe a rare case of FDE following the administration of the first shot of the Sinopharm vaccine.

2.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 10(1): e46, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912524

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic are still on. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sofosbuvir on length of hospital stay and complications in COVID-19 cases with moderate severity. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was done on moderate COVID-19 cases, who were admitted to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 4/2021 to 9/2021. Eligible patients were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention (sofosbuvir) and control, and their outcomes were compared regarding the length of hospital stay and complications. Results: 100 COVID-19 cases were randomly divided into two groups of 50 patients, as the intervention and control groups. The mean age of patients was 50.56 ± 12.23 and 57.1±14.1 years in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p = 0.02). The two groups were similar regarding distribution of gender (p = 0.15), underlying diseases (p = 0.08), the severity of COVID-19 (p = 0.80) at the time of admission, signs and symptoms (p > 0.05), and essential laboratory profile (p > 0.05). The length of hospital stay in the control and intervention groups was 7.7 ± 4.09 days and 4.7±1.6 days, respectively (p = 0.02). None of our patients needed ICU or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir may decrease the length of hospital stay of COVID-19 cases with moderate severity, without a significant effect on the rate of intensive care unit (ICU) need and mortality.

3.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 94: 107065, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778209

ABSTRACT

Introduction and importance: Vertical transmission of the novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has not yet been proven. However, several case reports and case series worldwide, including ours, support this certain type of transmission. Although COVID-19 has been mostly treated supportively, in some cases, including ours, medical treatment seems to be essential. Case presentation: Herein, we present a case of a neonate born to an asymptomatic mother with no known history of COVID-19 during pregnancy who was diagnosed as an asymptomatic silent carrier following the confirmation of COVID-19 in her newborn. Although bacterial pneumonia, early-onset sepsis, and meconium aspiration syndrome were the possible differential diagnosis, positive COVID-19 real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the diagnosis. Due to the neonate's critical lung involvement leading to a critical condition, remdesivir, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and corticosteroid were administered. The patient fully recovered and was discharged after around 20 days. Clinical discussion: Although treatment in most cases of neonatal COVID-19 has been mainly supportive, in a few case reports remdesivir, corticosteroids and IVIG have been successfully used. Since a satisfying clinical improvement was not noticed following sepsis workup, all the three aforementioned medications were administered. Conclusion: Immunomodulatory medications as well as antiviral therapy should be considered in severe neonatal COVID-19 cases, as were shown to be lifesaving in our patient. Interestingly, to date, this case seems to be the youngest survived patient who has received medicines other than supportive care.

4.
Phytother Res ; 36(2): 891-898, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694652

ABSTRACT

Colchicine has shown clinical benefits in the management of COVID-19 via its anti-inflammatory effect. However, the exact role of colchicine in COVID-19 patients is unknown. The current clinical trial was performed on 202 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive up to a 3-day course of 0.5 mg colchicine followed by a 12-day course of 1 mg colchicine in combination with standard care or a 15-day course of standard care. Among 202 randomized patients, 153 completed the study and received colchicine/standard care or continued standard care (M age, 54.72 [SD, 15.03] years; 93 [63.1%] men). On day 14, patients in the colchicine/standard care group had significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution on chest CT evaluation (p = .048). Based on NYHA classification, the percentage change of dyspnea on day 14 between groups was statistically significant (p = .026), indicating a mean of 31.94% change in the intervention group when compared with 19.95% in the control group. According to this study, colchicine can improve clinical outcomes and reduce pulmonary infiltration in COVID-19 patients if contraindications and precautions are considered and it is prescribed at the right time and in appropriate cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(2): 625-636, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482208

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In less than one and a half year, the COVID-19 pandemic has nearly brought to a collapse our health care and economic systems. The scientific research community has concentrated all possible efforts to understand the pathogenesis of this complex disease, and several groups have recently emphasized recommendations for nutritional support in COVID-19 patients. In this scoping review, we aim at encouraging a deeper appreciation of magnesium in clinical nutrition, in view of the vital role of magnesium and the numerous links between the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and magnesium-dependent functions. METHODS: By searching PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to date, we review existing evidence from experimental and clinical studies on the role of magnesium in chronic non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases, and we focus on recent reports of alterations of magnesium homeostasis in COVID-19 patients and their association with disease outcomes. Importantly, we conduct a census on ongoing clinical trials specifically dedicated to disclosing the role of magnesium in COVID-19. RESULTS: Despite many methodological limitations, existing data seem to corroborate an association between deranged magnesium homeostasis and COVID-19, and call for further and better studies to explore the prophylactic or therapeutic potential of magnesium supplementation. CONCLUSION: We propose to reconsider the relevance of magnesium, frequently overlooked in clinical practice. Therefore, magnesemia should be monitored and, in case of imbalanced magnesium homeostasis, an appropriate nutritional regimen or supplementation might contribute to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce severity of COVID-19 symptoms and facilitate the recovery after the acute phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeostasis , Humans , Magnesium , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(12): 2769-2772, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335966

ABSTRACT

Acrocyanosis and digital necrosis, which caused by microangiopathic and immunothrombosis phenomenon, may accompanied by microvascular involvement of other organs. Therefore, this finding can play a prognostic role in covid-19 outcome.

8.
Trials ; 22(1): 60, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Basic and clinical studies have shown that magnesium sulphate ameliorates lung injury and controls asthma attacks by anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effects. Both intravenous and inhaled magnesium sulphate have a clinical impact on acute severe asthma by inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction. Besides, magnesium sulphate can dilate constricted pulmonary arteries and reduce pulmonary artery resistance. However, it may affect systemic arteries when administered intravenously. A large number of patients with covid-19 admitted to the hospital suffer from pulmonary involvement. COVID-19 can cause hypoxia due to the involvement of the respiratory airways and parenchyma along with circulatory impairment, which induce ventilation-perfusion mismatch. This condition may result in hypoxemia and low arterial blood oxygen pressure and saturation presented with some degree of dyspnoea and shortness of breath. Inhaled magnesium sulphate as a smooth muscle relaxant (natural calcium antagonist) can cause both bronchodilator and consequently vasodilator effects (via a direct effect on alveolar arterioles in well-ventilated areas) in the respiratory tract. We aim to investigate if inhaled magnesium sulphate as adjuvant therapy to standard treatment can reduce ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the respiratory tract and subsequently improve arterial oxygen saturation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: A multi-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms design (1:1 ratio) PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18-80 years hospitalized at Masih Daneshvari Hospital and Shahid Dr. Labbafinejad hospital in Tehran and Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd will be included if they meet the inclusion criteria of the study. Inclusion criteria are defined as 1. Confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal secretions or clinical manifestations along with chest computed tomography (chest CT) scan 2. Presenting with moderate or severe COVID-19 lung involvement confirmed with chest CT scan and arterial oxygen saturation below 93% 3. Length of hospital stay ≤48 hours. Patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmia, heart block, the myocardial injury will be excluded from the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomly divided into two arms. Patients in the intervention arm will be given both standard treatment for COVID-19 (according to the national guideline) and magnesium sulphate (5 cc of a 20% injectable vial or 2 cc of a 50% injectable vial will be diluted by 50 cc distilled water and nebulized via a mask) every eight hours for five days. Patients in the control (comparator) arm will only receive standard treatment for COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOMES: Improvement of respiratory function and symptoms including arterial blood oxygen saturation, dyspnoea (according to NYHA functional classification), and cough within the first five days of randomization. RANDOMISATION: Block randomisation will be used to allocate eligible patients to the study arms (in a 1:1 ratio). Computer software will be applied to randomly select the blocks. BLINDING (MASKING): The study is an open-label RCT without blinding. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The trial will be performed on 100 patients who will be randomly divided into two arms of control (50) and intervention (50). TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 5.0, January 05, 2021. Recruitment of the participants started on July 30, 2020, and it is anticipated to be completed by February 28, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) on July 28, 2020. It is available on https://en.irct.ir/trial/49879 . The registration number is IRCT20191211045691N1. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting the dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation , Blood Gas Analysis , Bronchodilator Agents , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Iran , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio
9.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 152-155, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952696

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old pregnant woman (gestational age: 24 weeks) presented with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. Deterioration of her respiratory status resulted in her admission to the intensive care unit and mechanical ventilator support. Considering the lack of improvement in oxygen saturation, teleconsultation was performed, suggesting prone-position ventilation (PPV). Significant improvements were observed in oxygen saturation. The patient was extubated after five days of intermittent PPV and supine-position ventilation and was discharged 20 days after admission. Also, assessments revealed that the fetus was unharmed by the intervention. We suggest considering PPV for pregnant women with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

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