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The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ; 23(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898126

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel respiratory tract infection, from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was detected in China that rapidly spread around the world. This virus possesses spike (S) glycoproteins on the surface of mature virions, like other members of coronaviridae. The S glycoprotein is a crucial viral protein for binding, fusion, and entry into the target cells. Binding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), a cell-surface receptor, mediates virus entry into cells;thus, understanding the basics of ACE2 and S protein, their interactions, and ACE2 targeting could be a potent priority for inhibition of virus infection. This review presents current knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 basics and entry mechanism, structure and organ distribution of ACE2, and also its function in SARS-CoV-2 entry and pathogenesis. Furthermore, it highlights ACE2 targeting by recombinant ACE2 (rACE2), ACE2 activators, ACE inhibitor, and angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker to control the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Trends Analyt Chem ; 155: 116686, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895467

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are responsible for the deaths of millions of people throughout the world. Since outbreak of highly contagious and mutant viruses such as contemporary sars-cov-2 pandemic, has challenged the conventional diagnostic methods, the entity of a thoroughly sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive detecting technique with minimum level of false-positivity or -negativity, is desperately needed more than any time in the past decades. Biosensors as minimized devices could detect viruses in simple formats. So far, various nucleic acid, immune- and protein-based biosensors were designed and tested for recognizing the genome, antigen, or protein level of viruses, respectively; however, nucleic acid-based sensing techniques, which is the foundation of constructing genosensors, are preferred not only because of their ultra-sensitivity and applicability in the early stages of infections but also for their ability to differentiate various strains of the same virus. To date, the review articles related to genosensors are just confined to particular pathogenic diseases; In this regard, the present review covers comprehensive information of the research progress of the electrochemical, optical, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) genosensors that applied for human viruses' diseases detection and also provides a well description of viruses' clinical importance, the conventional diagnosis approaches of viruses and their disadvantages. This review would address the limitations in the current developments as well as the future challenges involved in the successful construction of sensing approaches with the functionalized nanomaterials and also allow exploring into core-research works regarding this area.

3.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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