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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(7): 106468, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are several reports of the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). In this study, we aimed to compare the hospitalization rate of CVST before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (before vaccination program). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the hospitalization rate of adult CVST patients in Namazi hospital, a tertiary referral center in the south of Iran, was compared in two periods of time. We defined March 2018 to March 2019 as the pre-COVID-19 period and March 2020 to March 2021 as the COVID-19 period. RESULTS: 50 and 77 adult CVST patients were hospitalized in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods, respectively. The crude CVST hospitalization rate increased from 14.33 in the pre-COVID-19 period to 21.7 per million in the COVID-19 era (P = 0.021). However, after age and sex adjustment, the incremental trend in hospitalization rate was not significant (95% CrI: -2.2, 5.14). Patients > 50-year-old were more often hospitalized in the COVID-19 period (P = 0.042). SARS-CoV-2 PCR test was done in 49.3% out of all COVID-19 period patients, which were positive in 6.5%. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 at three-month follow-up was associated with age (P = 0.015) and malignancy (P = 0.014) in pre-COVID period; and was associated with age (P = 0.025), altered mental status on admission time (P<0.001), malignancy (P = 0.041) and COVID-19 infection (P = 0.008) in COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: Since there was a more dismal outcome in COVID-19 associated CVST, a high index of suspicion for CVST among COVID-19 positive is recommended.

2.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(5): 1789-1793, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757766

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is ordinarily monophasic. ADEM can develop following infection or vaccination. Here, we present a 37 y/o male patient with progressive muscle weakness in all limbs along with dysphagia following COVID-19 vaccination. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed typical imaging findings which presented as multifocal T2-FLAIR signal changes in the corticospinal tract, pons, and temporal lobe with diffusion restriction. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) further confirmed the diagnosis by the typical elevation of the Choline and Myoinositol peaks. Neurologic impairments have been reported as the potential side effects of COVID-19 vaccines. Appropriate imaging modalities together with a thorough clinical examination are essential for making a correct diagnosis.

3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 61: 103777, 2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iran, as a middle income country, is one of the places with high and rising prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Regarding the substantial economic burden, reviewing the trend in prescribed disease modifying treatments (DMTs) could be of help. Here we studied the DMT information of nearly 14000 MS cases and its trends change for 30 years to improve health services to patients. METHODS: The population base of this descriptive-analytical (cross-sectional) study consisted of all MS patients in the nationwide MS registry of Iran (NMSRI), up to August 1, 2021. Registrars from 15 provinces, 24 cities, 13 hospitals,8 MS associations, 16 private offices, and 7 clinics had entered the data. RESULTS: Overall, 14316 cases were enrolled. The majority (76.1%) were female. The youngest and eldest patients were 5 and 78 years old, respectively. Diagnosis delay was under one year in most cases (median: 0, IQR: 0 - 1). Most (61.4%) had RRMS. Generally, platform injectables (IFN beta, glatiramer acetate) were the most used DMTs until 2010. It seems that introduction of newer agents (antiCD20s and oral DMTs) resulted in a decrease in the use of former drugs since around 2015. Some unusual practices are prominent such as using not approved DMTs for PPMS over the years, or administering high efficacy drugs like natalizumab for CIS. The results indicate the remaining popularity of first line injectable DMTs in female and pediatric patients. DISCUSSION: Mean age (SD) at onset in our study (29 ± 8.8) is near the statistics in Asia and Oceania (28 ± 0.7). Concerns about COVID-19 had a noticeable impact on administering high efficacy drugs like rituximab and fingolimod. However, in male patients this approach has not been the case. It may be related to more aggressive disease course in this group. The other possible explanation could be planning for pregnancy in female cases. The popularity of platform injectable drugs in pediatric MS may be related to its favorable safety profile over the years. Another point in this group, is the superiority of rituximab over other highly efficient medications.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328705

ABSTRACT

Background: There are several reports of the association between SARS-CoV-2infection (COVID-19) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). In this study, we aimed to compare the hospitalization rate of CVST before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (before vaccination program). Methods In this retrospective cohort study, the hospitalization rate of adult CVST patients in Namazi hospital, a tertiary referral center in the south of Iran, was compared in two periods of time. We defined March 2018 to March 2019 as the pre-COVID-19 period and March 2020 to March 2021 as the COVID-19 period. Results 50 and 77 adult CVST patients were hospitalized in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods, respectively. The crude CVST hospitalization rate increased from 14.33 in the pre-COVID-19 period to 21.7 per million in the COVID-19 era (P=0.021). However, after age and sex adjustment, the incremental trend in hospitalization rate was not significant (95% CrI: -2.2, 5.14). Patients > 50-year-old were more often hospitalized in the COVID-19 period. (P=0.042) SARS-CoV-2 PCR test was done in 49.3% out of all COVID-19 period patients, which were positive in 6.5%. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 at three-month follow-up was associated with age (P=0.015) and malignancy (P=0.014) in pre-COVID period;and was associated with age (P=0.025), altered mental status on admission time (P<0.001), malignancy (P=0.041) and COVID-19 infection (P=0.008) in COVID-19 period. Conclusion Since there was a more dismal outcome in COVID-19 associated CVST, a high index of suspicion for CVST among COVID-19 positive is recommended.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320278

ABSTRACT

Background: Aneurysm formation of internal carotid arteries (ICA) in patients with mucormycosis is a scarce phenomenon. However, the prevalence of rhino-cerebral mucormycosis has been reported to increase after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods Three patients with stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ICA aneurysm after the involvement of adjacent paranasal sinuses with mucormycosis were presented. All patients were recruited from Namazi and Khalili hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran from April 2021 to May 2021. Results They had a history of diabetes and corticosteroid use. Also, one of them was treated with imatinib. Two out of three patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 infection before developing mucormycosis. Two patients had diagnostic angiography before endovascular intervention. One patient did not undergo any therapeutic intervention due to total artery occlusion, whereas the other patient experienced a successful parent artery occlusion by coiling, and only this patient survived. Although all patients received antifungal treatment and surgical debridement, two of them died. Conclusions In the patients with rhino-cerebral mucormycosis evolving of aneurysm should be promptly and meticulously investigated by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA). As this type of aneurysms was very fast-growing, as soon as the involvement of sphenoid sinus was detected, the possibility of ICA aneurysm formation should always be kept in mind. If the patient developed an aneurysm, prompt intensive antifungal therapy and therapeutic endovascular interventions such as stenting, coiling, or sacrificing should be considered as soon as possible to optimize outcomes.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318440

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. This study provides a series of patients with CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: : Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran from June to July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, main COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. Results: : Six patients (aged 31 to 62 years old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five out of six patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four out of six patients passed away. Conclusions: : The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a “cause” versus an “additive contributor” remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 57: 103437, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regarding the high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and COVID-19 in Iran, a multicenter study of COVID-19 in Iranian MS patients with is carried out to address the concerns of this population. METHODS: Data on MS patients with COVID-19 from nine provinces of Iran were entered in a web-based registry system, between July 2020 and March 2021. Among the COVID-19 symptoms, dyspnea, altered mental status, or those resulting in hospital admission were considered severe. RESULTS: A total of 397 eligible patients were identified. In addition, 310 (78%) were female. The mean age was 36.5 ± 9.5. 294 (74%) patients had relapsing- remitting form. Also, four patients (1%) expired due to COVID-19 infection. The mean duration of admission in hospitalized patients was 9 (± 5.3) days. MRI was performed on 111 (28%) patients after developing COVID-19. MRI changes were observed in 27 (24%) of these cases. MS drug was changed in 26 (6%) patients. Steroid use in the past three months (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.003-5.88) (p value: 0.049) and antiCD20s (OR: 4.03, 95% CI: 2.41-6.68) (p value < 0.001) showed significant association with severe COVID-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION: The death rate of COVID-19 among MS patients (1%) is lower than the overall death rate of the pandemic in Iran (3%). Those who received steroid in the past three months may be at increased risk of more severe forms of COVID-19. There are still doubts about the effect of anti CD20s on COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3549-3560, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. METHODS: Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran between June and July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, prominent COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. RESULTS: Six patients (31-62 years-old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four patients died. SARS-COV-2 associated CVST patients were older (49.26 vs. 37.77 years-old), had lower female/male ratio (1.42 vs. 2.19), and higher mortality rate (35.29% vs. 6.07%) than CVST not associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a "cause" versus an "additive contributor" remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology
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