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Cephalalgia ; 43(1): 3331024221131337, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194918


OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarize the knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of secondary headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination; as well as to delineate their impact on primary headache disorders. METHODS: This is a narrative review of the literature regarding primary and secondary headache disorders in the setting of COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a literature search in 2022 on PubMed, with the keywords "COVID 19" or "vaccine" and "headache" to assess the appropriateness of all published articles for their inclusion in the review. RESULTS: Headache is a common and sometimes difficult-to-treat symptom of both the acute and post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved, with the trigeminovascular system as a plausible target. Specific evidence-based effective therapeutic options are lacking at present. Headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations is also common, its pathophysiology being unclear. People with primary headache disorders experience headache in the acute phase of COVID-19 and after vaccination more commonly than the general population. Pandemic measures, forcing lifestyle changes, seemed to have had a positive impact on migraine, and changes in headache care (telemedicine) have been effectively introduced. CONCLUSIONS: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge, having an impact on the development of secondary headaches, both in people with or without primary headaches. This has created opportunities to better understand and treat headache and to potentiate strategies to manage patients and ensure care.

COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Headache/diagnosis , Migraine Disorders/complications
Headache ; 62(8): 1019-1028, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019282


OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality and headache among patients evaluated for COVID-19 in Emergency Departments and hospitals. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disparate impacts on those who contract it. Headache, a COVID-19 symptom, has been associated with positive disease prognosis. We sought to determine whether headache is associated with relative risk of COVID-19 survival. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed was performed independently by three reviewers to identify all COVID-19 clinical inpatient series in accordance with the PRISMA guideline. Studies were included if the study design, COVID-19 confirmation method, disease survival ratio, and presence of headache symptom were accessible. We included 48 cohort studies with a total of 43,169 inpatients with COVID-19: 81.4% survived (35,132/43,169) versus 18.6% non-survived (8037/43,169). A meta-analysis of the included studies was then performed. The study was registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021260151). RESULTS: When considering headache as a symptom of COVID-19, we observed a significantly higher survival rate (risk ratio: 1.90 [1.46, 2.47], p < 0.0001) among COVID-19 inpatients with headache compared to those without headache. CONCLUSION: Headache among patients with COVID-19 presenting to hospitals may be a marker of host processes which enhance COVID-19 survival. Future studies should further confirm these findings, in order to better understand this relation and to try to address possible limitations related to the inclusion of more severe patients who would be unable to report symptoms (e.g., patients who were intubated).

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Headache , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2
Cephalalgia ; 42(8): 804-809, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685877


BACKGROUND: Headache is a frequent symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its long-term evolution remains unknown. We aim to evaluate the long-term duration of headache in patients that presented headache during the acute phase of COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post-hoc multicenter ambisective study including patients from six different third-level hospitals between 1 March and 27 April 2020. Patients completed 9 months of neurological follow-up. RESULTS: We included 905 patients. Their median age was 51 (IQR 45-65), 66.5% were female, and 52.7% had a prior history of primary headache. The median duration of headache was 14 (6-39) days; however, the headache persisted after 3 months in 19.0% (95% CI: 16.5-21.8%) and after 9 months in 16.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7-18.7%). Headache intensity during the acute phase was associated with a more prolonged duration of headache (Hazard ratio 0.655; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.737). CONCLUSION: The median duration of headache was 2 weeks, but in approximately a fifth of patients it became persistent and followed a chronic daily pattern.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors