Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 23
Filter
2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1108465, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295962

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies have highlighted a possible influence of gingival and periodontal disease (PD) on COVID-19 risk and severity. However, the evidence is based on hospital-based studies and community-level data are sparse. Objectives: We described the epidemiological pattern of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Delhi and evaluated the associations of gingival and PD with incident COVID-19 disease in a regionally representative urban Indian population. Methods: In a prospective study nested within the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia (CARRS) study, participants with clinical gingival and periodontal status available at baseline (2014-16) (n = 1,727) were approached between October 2021 to March 2022. Information on COVID-19 incidence, testing, management, severity was collected as per the WHO case criteria along with COVID-19 vaccination status. Absolute incidence of COVID-19 disease was computed by age, sex, and oral health. Differences in rates were tested using log-rank test. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate independent associations between gingival and PD and incidence of COVID-19, adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral factors, presence of comorbidity, and medication use. Results: Among 1,727 participants, the mean age was 44.0 years, 45.7% were men, 84.5% participants had baseline gingival or PD and 89.4% participants had received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, 35% (n = 606) participants were tested for COVID-19 and 24% (n = 146/606) tested positive. As per the WHO criteria total number of cases was 210, constituting 12% of the total population. The age and sex-specific rates of COVID-19 were higher among men and older participants, but women aged >60 years had higher rates than men of same age. The incidence rate did not differ significantly between those having gingival or PD and healthy periodontium (19.1 vs. 16.5/1,000 person-years) and there was no difference in risk of COVID-19 by baseline oral disease status. Conclusion: Gingival and PD were not associated with increased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
3.
Tobacco induced diseases ; 21, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2303561

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION Measures to address the COVID-19 pandemic in India included a ban on the sale and use of tobacco products during 2020 when stay at home guidance (lockdown) was in place. In this study we examined the extent of reduction in frequency of tobacco consumption across all products. METHODS Telephone survey was conducted between July and August 2020 across an existing cohort of tobacco users (n=801) residing in Delhi (55.4%) and Chennai (44.6%), India. The participants were recruited irrespective of their gender and use of any kind of tobacco product(s). The survey questionnaire was based on the STOP (Studying Tobacco users Of Pakistan) survey and adapted to the context of smoking and smokeless tobacco use in India. RESULTS Cigarette consumption declined from a median value of 5.0 (IQR: 2–10) sticks in the pre-lockdown period to 2.0 (IQR: 0.4–5) sticks during the lockdown period. Reductions were reported in the daily use of bidis, from 8 (IQR: 4–12) sticks to 5 (IQR: 2–10) sticks and for smokeless tobacco users from 3.5 (IQR: 2–5) packs to 2 (IQR: 1–4) packs during the lockdown. Furthermore, the number of daily cigarette smokers in our cohort decreased from 32.6% (n=261) in the pre-lockdown period to 27.5% (n=220) during lockdown and smokeless tobacco users decreased from 35.8% (n=287) in pre-lockdown period to 30.3% (n=243) during the lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS The decrease in tobacco use can be attributed to various societal and environmental factors. However, the pandemic-linked lockdown provided an opportune condition to reduce the use of tobacco products, which could be due to restricted access and increase in health awareness during the COVID-19 lockdown.

4.
Heart ; 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 affects the cardiovascular system and ECG abnormalities may be associated with worse prognosis. We evaluated the prognostic value of ECG abnormalities in individuals with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study with adults hospitalised with COVID-19 from 40 hospitals across 23 countries. Patients were followed-up from admission until 30 days. ECG were obtained at each participating site and coded according to the Minnesota coding criteria. The primary outcome was defined as death from any cause. Secondary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of ECG abnormalities with the outcomes. RESULTS: Among 5313 participants, 2451 had at least one ECG and were included in this analysis. The mean age (SD) was 58.0 (16.1) years, 60.7% were male and 61.1% from lower-income to middle-income countries. The prevalence of major ECG abnormalities was 21.3% (n=521), 447 (18.2%) patients died, 196 (8.0%) had MACE and 1115 (45.5%) were admitted to an ICU. After adjustment, the presence of any major ECG abnormality was associated with a higher risk of death (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.78) and cardiovascular events (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.30 to 2.51). Sinus tachycardia (>120 bpm) with an increased risk of death (OR 3.86; 95% CI 1.97 to 7.48), MACE (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.10 to 5.85) and ICU admission OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.03 to 4.00). Atrial fibrillation, bundle branch block, ischaemic abnormalities and prolonged QT interval did not relate to the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Major ECG abnormalities and a heart rate >120 bpm were prognostic markers in adults hospitalised with COVID-19.

5.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217353

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle- and high-income countries (LIC, LMIC, UMIC, HIC). Methods: Through a prospective cohort study, data on demographics and pre-existing conditions at hospital admission, clinical outcomes at hospital discharge (death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), renal failure, neurological events, and pulmonary outcomes), 30-day vital status, and re-hospitalization were collected. Descriptive analyses and multivariable log-binomial regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/income groups, and clinical characteristics, were performed. Results: Forty hospitals from 23 countries recruited 5,313 patients with COVID-19 (LIC = 7.1%, LMIC = 47.5%, UMIC = 19.6%, HIC = 25.7%). Mean age was 57.0 (±16.1) years, male 59.4%, pre-existing conditions included: hypertension 47.3%, diabetes 32.0%, coronary heart disease 10.9%, and heart failure 5.5%. The most frequently reported cardiovascular discharge diagnoses were cardiac arrest (5.5%), acute heart failure (3.8%), and myocardial infarction (1.6%). The rate of in-hospital deaths was 12.9% (N = 683), and post-discharge 30 days deaths was 2.6% (N = 118) (overall death rate 15.1%). The most common causes of death were respiratory failure (39.3%) and sudden cardiac death (20.0%). The predictors of overall mortality included older age (≥60 years), male sex, pre-existing coronary heart disease, renal disease, diabetes, ICU admission, oxygen therapy, and higher respiratory rates (p < 0.001 for each). Compared to Caucasians, Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics had almost 2-4 times higher risk of death. Further, patients from LIC, LMIC, UMIC versus. HIC had 2-3 times increased risk of death. Conclusions: The LIC, LMIC, and UMIC's have sparse data on COVID-19. We provide robust evidence on COVID-19 outcomes in these countries. This study can help guide future health care planning for the pandemic globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Telehealth and Medicine Today ; 6(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026466

ABSTRACT

For long-term and episodic telehealth, we start to see the “final mile experience” with home delivery of pharmaceuticals, durable medical equipment, and even direct-to-consumer lab testing. [...]I am optimistic that synergistic integration of telehealth services with big data, AI-powered algorithms and information from wearables or mobile devices will have the greatest positive impact on healthcare and its outcomes over the next 2–5 years (more than any digital technology alone). [...]rideshare companies bent the cost curve to the point where riders can stop paying high monthly parking fees (aka insurance premiums) and continue to get low-cost, safe, reliable transportation (aka virtual visits) when needed. [...]telehealth will follow the rideshare roadmap…or maybe we will just merge industries.2 Ingrid Vasiliu-Feltes Over the past few years, we have witnessed a significant increase in telehealth adoption and expansion. “Tele-XR-Health” (a telehealth clinic with VR powered medical treatments) has the potential to redefine and reshape medical education, medical training, virtual healthcare delivery, and virtual clinical trials.

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 964949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022916

ABSTRACT

Background: The world witnessed a highly contagious and deadly disease, COVID-19, toward the end of 2019. India is one of the worst affected countries. We aimed to assess anxiety and depression levels among adult tobacco users and people who recently quit tobacco during COVID-19 lockdown in India. Materials and methods: The study was conducted across two Indian cities, Delhi and Chennai (July-August, 2020) among adult tobacco users (n = 801). Telephonic interviews were conducted using validated mental health tools (Patient Health Questionnaire-PHQ-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD-7) to assess the anxiety and depression levels of the participants. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to study the prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety. Results: We found that 20.6% of tobacco users had depression symptoms (3.9% moderate to severe); 20.7% had anxiety symptoms (3.8% moderate to severe). Risk factors associated with depression and anxiety included food, housing, and financial insecurity. Conclusion: During COVID-19 lockdown, mental health of tobacco users (primarily women) was associated with food, housing and financial insecurity. The Indian Government rightly initiated several health, social and economic measures to shield the most vulnerable from COVID-19, including a ban on the sale of tobacco products. It is also necessary to prioritize universal health coverage, expanded social security net, tobacco cessation and mental health services to such vulnerable populations during pandemic situations.

12.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e056408, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the use of telemedicine to maintain continuity of care for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a nurse-led teleconsultation strategy for CVD management during the COVID-19 pandemic in India and evaluated the impact of nurse-led teleconsultations on patient treatment satisfaction. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a two-stage teleconsultation strategy and tested the feasibility of implementing a nurse-led teleconsultation strategy to manage CVD in a northern state (Punjab) in India. A multidisciplinary team of experts developed the treatment protocol used for teleconsultations to manage CVD. Nurses were trained to provide teleconsultation, triaging of patients and referrals to the physicians. Patients with CVD who had an outpatient visit or hospitalisation between September 2019 and March 2020 at the Dayanand Medical College Hospital, Ludhiana, India, were contacted by phone and offered teleconsultations. Telemedicine strategy comprised: stage 1 nurse-led teleconsultations and stage 2 physician-led teleconsultations. Descriptive analysis was performed to report the proportion of patients triaged by the two-stage telemedicine strategy, and patient's clinical characteristics, and treatment satisfaction between the nurse-led versus physician-led teleconsultations. RESULTS: Overall, nurse-led stage 1 teleconsultations were provided to 12 042 patients with CVD. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 58.9 years (12.8), and men were 65.4%. A relatively small proportion of patients (6.3%) were referred for the stage-2 physician-led teleconsultations and of these only 8.4% required hospitalisations. During stage 1 nurse-led teleconsultations, patients were referred to the physicians due to uncontrolled diabetes (24.9%), uncontrolled hypertension (18.7%) and congestive heart failure (16.2%). The patient's treatment satisfaction was similar between the nurse-led versus physician-led teleconsultations (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: This study showed that a nurse-led telemedicine strategy is feasible to implement in a resource-constraint setting for triaging patients with CVD and reduces physician's burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse's Role , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/methods , Telemedicine/methods
13.
Circulation ; 143(8): 837-851, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883363

ABSTRACT

More than 40 years after the 1978 Bethesda Conference on the Declining Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease provided the scientific community with a blueprint for systematic analysis to understand declining rates of coronary heart disease, there are indications the decline has ended or even reversed despite advances in our knowledge about the condition and treatment. Recent data show a more complex situation, with mortality rates for overall cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, decelerating, whereas those for heart failure are increasing. To mark the 40th anniversary of the Bethesda Conference, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association cosponsored the "Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40" symposium. The objective was to examine the immediate and long-term outcomes of the 1978 conference and understand the current environment. Symposium themes included trends and future projections in cardiovascular disease (in the United States and internationally), the evolving obesity and diabetes epidemics, and harnessing emerging and innovative opportunities to preserve and promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition, participant-led discussion explored the challenges and barriers in promoting cardiovascular health across the lifespan and established a potential framework for observational research and interventions that would begin in early childhood (or ideally in utero). This report summarizes the relevant research, policy, and practice opportunities discussed at the symposium.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Congresses as Topic , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/pathology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/pathology , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Urbanization
14.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 64(2): 151-158, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771356

ABSTRACT

Background: Care of COVID-19 patients has been shown to affect the mental health of healthcare personnel (HCP), however, there is little data reflecting psychological health of HCP in India. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of psychological outcomes and its association with various sociodemographic and occupational factors among the HCP in India. Methodology: A cross-sectional, online survey, using snowball sampling method was conducted between June 1, 2020, and June 22, 2020. The HCP working in COVID-19 designated hospitals across India were invited to participate. Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and 19-item stress-related questionnaire were used to evaluate symptoms of overall anxiety, depression, COVID-19 infection specific anxiety, exhaustion, and workload. Results: In this cross-sectional study with 2334 HCP from 27 states and 7 union territories of India; 17.9% of participants had depression, 18.7% had overall anxiety, 26.5% had exhaustion, 30.3% reported heavy workload, and 25.4% had COVID-19 infection-specific anxiety, respectively. The HCP working in states with higher caseload was a common risk factor for overall anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; P < 0.001), depression (OR, 1.6; P < 0.001), COVID-19 infection-specific anxiety (OR, 2.5; P < 0.001), exhaustion (OR, 3.1; P < 0.001), and heavy workload (OR, 2.6; P < 0.001). Nurses were more at risk for depression (OR, 2.2; P < 0.001), anxiety specific to COVID-19 infection (OR, 1.3; P = 0.034), and heavy workload (OR, 2.9; P < 0.001); while doctors were more at risk for overall anxiety (OR, 2.0; P = 0.001) and exhaustion (OR, 3.1; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Frontline workers, specifically nurses and doctors, and those working in states with high COVID-19 caseload are more at risk for adverse psychological outcomes. The relatively less prevalence compared with other countries, is perhaps a reflection of measures undertaken, including early lockdown, ensuring better all-round preparedness and social norms.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220773, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718200

ABSTRACT

Importance: Women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether a resource-appropriate and context-appropriate lifestyle intervention could prevent glycemic deterioration among women with recent GDM in South Asia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, participant-unblinded controlled trial investigated a 12-month lifestyle intervention vs usual care at 19 urban hospitals in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Participants included women with recent diagnosis of GDM who did not have type 2 diabetes at an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 3 to 18 months postpartum. They were enrolled from November 2017 to January 2020, and follow-up ended in January 2021. Data were analyzed from April to July 2021. Interventions: A 12-month lifestyle intervention focused on diet and physical activity involving group and individual sessions, as well as remote engagement, adapted to local context and resources. This was compared with usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was worsening category of glycemia based on OGTT using American Diabetes Association criteria: (1) normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes (ie, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or type 2 diabetes or (2) prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. The primary analysis consisted of a survival analysis of time to change in glycemic status at or prior to the final patient visit, which occurred at varying times after 12 months for each patient. Secondary outcomes included new-onset type 2 diabetes and change in body weight. Results: A total of 1823 women (baseline mean [SD] age, 30.9 [4.9] years and mean [SD] body mass index, 26.6 [4.6]) underwent OGTT at a median (IQR) 6.5 (4.8-8.2) months postpartum. After excluding 160 women (8.8%) with type 2 diabetes, 2 women (0.1%) who met other exclusion criteria, and 49 women (2.7%) who did not consent or were uncontactable, 1612 women were randomized. Subsequently, 11 randomized participants were identified as ineligible and excluded from the primary analysis, leaving 1601 women randomized (800 women randomized to the intervention group and 801 women randomized to usual care). These included 600 women (37.5%) with prediabetes and 1001 women (62.5%) with normoglycemia. Among participants randomized to the intervention, 644 women (80.5%) received all program content, although COVID-19 lockdowns impacted the delivery model (ie, among 644 participants who engaged in all group sessions, 476 women [73.9%] received some or all content through individual engagement, and 315 women [48.9%] received some or all content remotely). After a median (IQR) 14.1 (11.4-20.1) months of follow-up, 1308 participants (81.2%) had primary outcome data. The intervention, compared with usual care, did not reduce worsening glycemic status (204 women [25.5%] vs 217 women [27.1%]; hazard ratio, 0.92; [95% CI, 0.76-1.12]; P = .42) or improve any secondary outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that a large proportion of women in South Asian urban settings developed dysglycemia soon after a GDM-affected pregnancy and that a lifestyle intervention, modified owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, did not prevent subsequent glycemic deterioration. These findings suggest that alternate or additional approaches are needed, especially among high-risk individuals. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India Identifier: CTRI/2017/06/008744; Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: SLCTR/2017/001; and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03305939.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet , Exercise , Glycemic Control/methods , Life Style , Postpartum Period , Adult , Bangladesh , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes, Gestational/ethnology , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , India , Pregnancy , Sri Lanka , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Urban Population
16.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 808-826, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597870

ABSTRACT

In recent decades low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been witnessing a significant shift toward raised blood pressure; yet in LMICs, only 1 in 3 are aware of their hypertension status, and ≈8% have their blood pressure controlled. This rising burden widens the inequality gap, contributes to massive economic hardships of patients and carers, and increases costs to the health system, facing challenges such as low physician-to-patient ratios and lack of access to medicines. Established risk factors include unhealthy diet (high salt and low fruit and vegetable intake), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and obesity. Emerging risk factors include pollution (air, water, noise, and light), urbanization, and a loss of green space. Risk factors that require further in-depth research are low birth weight and social and commercial determinants of health. Global actions include the HEARTS technical package and the push for universal health care. Promising research efforts highlight that successful interventions are feasible in LMICs. These include creation of health-promoting environments by introducing salt-reduction policies and sugar and alcohol tax; implementing cost-effective screening and simplified treatment protocols to mitigate treatment inertia; pooled procurement of low-cost single-pill combination therapy to improve adherence; increasing access to telehealth and mHealth (mobile health); and training health care staff, including community health workers, to strengthen team-based care. As the blood pressure trajectory continues creeping upward in LMICs, contextual research on effective, safe, and cost-effective interventions is urgent. New emergent risk factors require novel solutions. Lowering blood pressure in LMICs requires urgent global political and scientific priority and action.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Hypertension , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Blood Pressure Monitors/standards , Blood Pressure Monitors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diet/adverse effects , Environment , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Health Behavior , Heart Diseases/mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Course Perspective , Life Style , Nurses/supply & distribution , Obesity/complications , Physicians/supply & distribution , Prevalence , Research , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Social Determinants of Health , Stroke/mortality , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Urbanization
17.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 22, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557646

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented an unprecedented global challenge for the healthcare community. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to get transmitted during the asymptomatic phase, and its high infectivity have led to the rapid transmission of COVID-19 beyond geographic regions facilitated by international travel, leading to a pandemic. To guide effective control and interventions, primary data is required urgently, globally, including from low- and middle-income countries where documentation of cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 is limited. Objectives: This study aims to describe the cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: We propose to conduct an observational cohort study involving 5000 patients recruited from hospitals in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Eligible adult COVID-19 patients will be recruited from the participating hospitals and followed-up until 30 days post admission. The outcomes will be reported at discharge and includes the need of ICU admission, need of ventilator, death (with cause), major adverse cardiovascular events, neurological outcomes, acute renal failure, and pulmonary outcomes. Conclusion: Given the enormous burden posed by COVID-19 and the associated severe prognostic implication of CVD involvement, this study will provide useful insights on the risk factors for severe disease, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients particularly from low and middle income countries from where the data remain scant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Global Health , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048926, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with chronic conditions are known to be vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to describe patients' lived experiences, challenges faced by people with chronic conditions, their coping strategies, and the social and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a qualitative study using a syndemic framework to understand the patients' experiences of chronic disease care, challenges faced during the lockdown, their coping strategies and mitigators during the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of socioecological and biological factors. A diverse sample of 41 participants with chronic conditions (hypertension, diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular diseases) from four sites (Delhi, Haryana, Vizag and Chennai) in India participated in semistructured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated, anonymised and coded using MAXQDA software. We used the framework method to qualitatively analyse the COVID-19 pandemic impacts on health, social and economic well-being. RESULTS: Participant experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic were categorised into four themes: challenges faced during the lockdown, experiences of the participants diagnosed with COVID-19, preventive measures taken and lessons learnt during the COVID-19 pandemic. A subgroup of participants faced difficulties in accessing healthcare while a few reported using teleconsultations. Most participants reported adverse economic impact of the pandemic which led to higher reporting of anxiety and stress. Participants who tested COVID-19 positive reported experiencing discrimination and stigma from neighbours. All participants reported taking essential preventive measures. CONCLUSION: People with chronic conditions experienced a confluence (reciprocal effect) of COVID-19 pandemic and chronic diseases in the context of difficulty in accessing healthcare, sedentary lifestyle and increased stress and anxiety. Patients' lived experiences during the pandemic provide important insights to inform effective transition to a mixed realm of online consultations and 'distanced' physical clinic visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Patient Outcome Assessment , Perception , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 685, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with chronic conditions are disproportionately prone to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic but there are limited data documenting this. We aimed to assess the health, psychosocial and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with chronic conditions in India. METHODS: Between July 29, to September 12, 2020, we telephonically surveyed adults (n = 2335) with chronic conditions across four sites in India. Data on participants' demographic, socio-economic status, comorbidities, access to health care, treatment satisfaction, self-care behaviors, employment, and income were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the factors associated with difficulty in accessing medicines and worsening of diabetes or hypertension symptoms. Further, a diverse sample of 40 participants completed qualitative interviews that focused on eliciting patient's experiences during the COVID-19 lockdowns and data analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred thirty-four individuals completed the survey (response rate = 74%). The mean (SD) age of respondents was 57.8 years (11.3) and 50% were men. During the COVID-19 lockdowns in India, 83% of participants reported difficulty in accessing healthcare, 17% faced difficulties in accessing medicines, 59% reported loss of income, 38% lost jobs, and 28% reduced fruit and vegetable consumption. In the final-adjusted regression model, rural residence (OR, 95%CI: 4.01,2.90-5.53), having diabetes (2.42, 1.81-3.25) and hypertension (1.70,1.27-2.27), and loss of income (2.30,1.62-3.26) were significantly associated with difficulty in accessing medicines. Further, difficulties in accessing medicines (3.67,2.52-5.35), and job loss (1.90,1.25-2.89) were associated with worsening of diabetes or hypertension symptoms. Qualitative data suggest most participants experienced psychosocial distress due to loss of job or income and had difficulties in accessing in-patient services. CONCLUSION: People with chronic conditions, particularly among poor, rural, and marginalized populations, have experienced difficulties in accessing healthcare and been severely affected both socially and financially by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/therapy , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Quarantine , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL