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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 375, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Half of U.S. adults have received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccines produced by either Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson and Johnson, which represents a major milestone in the ongoing pandemic. Given the emergency use authorizations for these vaccines, their side effects and safety were assessed over a compressed time period. Hence, ongoing monitoring for vaccine-related adverse events is imperative for a full understanding and delineation of their safety profile. CASE PRESENTATION: An 22-year-old Caucasian male presented to our hospital center complaining of pleuritic chest pain. Six months prior he had a mild case of COVID-19, but was otherwise healthy. He had received his first dose of the Moderna vaccine three days prior to developing symptoms. Laboratory analysis revealed a markedly elevated troponin and multiple imaging modalities during his hospitalization found evidence of wall motion abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of perimyocarditis. He was started on aspirin and colchicine with marked improvement of his symptoms prior to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of perimyocarditis that was temporally related to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in an young male with prior COVID-19 infection but otherwise healthy. Our case report highlights an albeit rare but important adverse event for clinicians to be aware of. It also suggests a possible mechanism for the development of myocardial injury in our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 54: 107370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is commonly associated with myocardial injury and heart failure. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains unclear, with many diverse and multifaceted hypotheses. To contribute to this understanding, we describe the underlying cardiac findings in fifty patients who died with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Included were autopsies performed on patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction test from the index hospitalization. In the case of out-of-hospital death, patients were included if post-mortem testing was positive. Complete autopsies were performed according to a COVID-19 safety protocol, and all patients underwent both macroscopic and microscopic examination. If available, laboratory findings and echocardiograms were reported. RESULTS: The median age of the decedents was 63.5 years. The most common comorbidities included hypertension (90.0%), diabetes (56.0%) and obesity (50.0%). Lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates in the heart were present in eight (16.0%) patients, with focal myocarditis present in two (4.0%) patients. Acute myocardial ischemia was observed in eight (16.0%) patients. The most common findings were myocardial fibrosis (80.0%), hypertrophy (72.0%), and microthrombi (66.0%). The most common causes of death were COVID-19 pneumonia in 18 (36.0%), COVID-19 pneumonia with bacterial superinfection in 12 (24.0%), and COVID-19 pneumonia with pulmonary embolism in 10 (20.0%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular comorbidities were prevalent, and pathologic changes associated with hypertensive and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were the most common findings. Despite markedly elevated inflammatory markers and cardiac enzymes, few patients exhibited inflammatory infiltrates or necrosis within cardiac myocytes. A unifying pathophysiologic mechanism behind myocardial injury in COVID-19 remains elusive, and additional autopsy studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heart Diseases/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/mortality , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Autopsy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/immunology , Necrosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation
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