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1.
Children (Basel) ; 10(5)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential therapeutic role of exercise on health-related quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), coronary flow reserve (CFR), cardiac function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and inflammatory and cardiac blood markers in multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) patients. METHODS: This is a case series study of a 12-wk, home-based exercise intervention in children and adolescents after MIS-C diagnosis. From 16 MIS-C patients followed at our clinic, 6 were included (age: 7-16 years; 3 females). Three of them withdrew before the intervention and served as controls. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life, assessed PODCI. Secondary outcomes were CFR assessed by 13N-ammonia PET-CT imaging, cardiac function by echocardiography, cardiorespiratory fitness, and inflammatory and cardiac blood markers. RESULTS: In general, patients showed poor health-related quality of life, which seemed to be improved with exercise. Additionally, exercised patients showed improvements in coronary flow reserve, cardiac function, and aerobic conditioning. Non-exercised patients exhibited a slower pattern of recovery, particularly in relation to health-related quality of life and aerobic conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exercise may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of post-discharge MIS-C patients. As our design does not allow inferring causality, randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

2.
Br J Sports Med ; 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting effects of COVID-19 may include cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal muscle, metabolic, psychological disorders and persistent symptoms that can impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated the effects of a home-based exercise training (HBET) programme on HRQoL and health-related outcomes in survivors of severe/critical COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-centre, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Fifty survivors of severe/critical COVID-19 (5±1 months after intensive care unit discharge) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a 3 times a week (~60-80 min/session), semi-supervised, individualised, HBET programme or standard of care (CONTROL). Changes in HRQoL were evaluated through the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and physical component summary was predetermined as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, functional capacity, body composition and persistent symptoms. Assessments were performed at baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention. Statistical analysis followed intention-to-treat principles. RESULTS: After the intervention, HBET showed greater HRQoL score than CONTROL in the physical component summary (estimated mean difference, EMD: 16.8 points; 95% CI 5.8 to 27.9; effect size, ES: 0.74), physical functioning (EMD: 22.5 points, 95% CI 6.1 to 42.9, ES: 0.83), general health (EMD: 17.4 points, 95% CI 1.8 to 33.1, ES: 0.73) and vitality (EMD: 15.1 points, 95% CI 0.2 to 30.1, ES: 0.49) domains. 30-second sit-to-stand (EMD: 2.38 reps, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.76, ES: 0.86), and muscle weakness and myalgia were also improved in HBET compared with CONTROL (p<0.05). No significant differences were seen in the remaining variables. There were no adverse events. CONCLUSION: HBET is an effective and safe intervention to improve physical domains of HRQoL, functional capacity and persistent symptoms in survivors of severe/critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04615052.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1128414, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313232

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) may capture potential impacts of COVID-19 during exercise. We described CPET data on athletes and physically active individuals with or without cardiorespiratory persistent symptoms. Methods: Participants' assessment included medical history and physical examination, cardiac troponin T, resting electrocardiogram, spirometry and CPET. Persistent symptoms were defined as fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, dizziness, tachycardia, and exertional intolerance persisting >2 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. Results: A total of 46 participants were included; sixteen (34.8%) were asymptomatic and thirty participants (65.2%) reported persistent symptoms, with fatigue and dyspnea being the most reported ones (43.5 and 28.1%). There were a higher proportion of symptomatic participants with abnormal data for slope of pulmonary ventilation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope; p<0.001), end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure at rest (PETCO2 rest; p=0.007), PETCO2 max (p=0.009), and dysfunctional breathing (p=0.023) vs. asymptomatic ones. Rates of abnormalities in other CPET variables were comparable between asymptomatic and symptomatic participants. When assessing only elite and highly trained athletes, differences in the rate of abnormal findings between asymptomatic and symptomatic participants were no longer statistically significant, except for expiratory air flow-to-percent of tidal volume ratio (EFL/VT) (more frequent among asymptomatic participants) and dysfunctional breathing (p=0.008). Discussion: A considerable proportion of consecutive athletes and physically active individuals presented with abnormalities on CPET after COVID-19, even those who had had no persistent cardiorespiratory symptomatology. However, the lack of control parameters (e.g., pre-infection data) or reference values for athletic populations preclude stablishing the causality between COVID-19 infection and CPET abnormalities as well as the clinical significance of these findings.

4.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282475, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if a cloth facemask could affect physiological and perceptual responses to exercise at distinct exercise intensities in healthy young individuals. METHODS: Nine participants (sex, female/male: 6/3; age: 13±1 years; VO2peak: 44.5±5.5 mL/kg/min) underwent a progressive square-wave test at four intensities: (1) 80% of ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), (2) VAT, and (3) 40% between VAT and [Formula: see text] wearing a triple-layered cloth facemask or not. Participants then completed a final stage to exhaustion at a running speed equivalent to the maximum achieved during the cardio-respiratory exercise test (Peak). Physiological, metabolic, and perceptual measures were measured. RESULTS: Mask did not affect spirometry (forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume; all p≥0.27), respiratory (inspiratory capacity, end-expiratory volume [EELV] to functional vital capacity ratio, EELV, respiratory frequency [Rf], tidal volume [VT], Rf/VT, end-tidal carbo dioxide pressure, ventilatory equivalent to carbon dioxide ratio; all p≥0.196), hemodynamic (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; all p>0.41), ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.04) or metabolic measures (lactate; p = 0.78) at rest or at any exercise intensity. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that performing moderate to severe activity is safe and tolerable for healthy youth while wearing a cloth facemask. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04887714.


Subject(s)
Masks , Respiration , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , Child , Respiratory Rate , Anaerobic Threshold , Carbon Dioxide
5.
J Phys Act Health ; 20(1): 35-44, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152870

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Investigate whether a cloth facemask could affect physiological and perceptual responses to exercise at distinct exercise intensities in untrained individuals. METHODS: Healthy participants (n = 35; 17 men, age 30 [4] y, and 18 women, age 28 [5] y) underwent a progressive square wave test at 4 intensities: (1) 80% of ventilatory anaerobic threshold; (2) ventilatory anaerobic threshold; (3) respiratory compensation point; and (4) exercise peak (Peak) to exhaustion, 5-minute stages, with or without a triple-layered cloth facemask (Mask or No-Mask). Several physiological and perceptual measures were analyzed. RESULTS: Mask reduced inspiratory capacity at all exercise intensities (P < .0001). Mask reduced respiratory frequency (P = .001) at Peak (-8.3 breaths·min-1; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.8 to -10.8), respiratory compensation point (-6.9 breaths·min-1; 95% CI, -4.6 to -9.2), and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (-6.5 breaths·min-1; 95% CI, -4.1 to -8.8), but not at Baseline or 80% of ventilatory anaerobic threshold. Mask reduced tidal volume (P < .0001) only at respiratory compensation point (-0.5 L; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.6) and Peak (-0.8 L; 95% CI, -0.6 to -0.9). Shallow breathing index was increased with Mask only at Peak (11.3; 95% CI, 7.5 to 15.1). Mask did not change HR, lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, blood pressure, or oxygen saturation. CONCLUSIONS: A cloth facemask reduced time to exhaustion but had no major impact on cardiorespiratory parameters and had a slight but clinically meaningless impact on respiratory variables at higher intensities. Moderate to heavy activity is safe and tolerable for healthy individuals while wearing a cloth facemask. CLINICALTRIALS: gov: NCT04887714.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Masks , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Exercise Test , Masks/adverse effects
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(3): H569-H576, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001931

ABSTRACT

The post-acute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often marked by several persistent symptoms and exertional intolerance, which compromise survivors' exercise capacity. This was a cross-sectional study aiming to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics and cardiopulmonary function in survivors of severe COVID-19 about 3-6 mo after intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Thirty-five COVID-19 survivors previously admitted to ICU (5 ± 1 mo after hospital discharge) and 18 controls matched for sex, age, comorbidities, and physical activity level with no prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited. Subjects were submitted to a maximum-graded cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) with an initial 3-min period of a constant, moderate-intensity walk (i.e., below ventilatory threshold, VT). V̇o2 kinetics was remarkably impaired in COVID-19 survivors as evidenced at the on-transient by an 85% (P = 0.008) and 28% (P = 0.001) greater oxygen deficit and mean response time (MRT), respectively. Furthermore, COVID-19 survivors showed an 11% longer (P = 0.046) half-time of recovery of V̇o2 (T1/2V̇o2) at the off-transient. CPX also revealed cardiopulmonary impairments following COVID-19. Peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak), percent-predicted V̇o2peak, and V̇o2 at the ventilatory threshold (V̇o2VT) were reduced by 17%, 17%, and 12% in COVID-19 survivors, respectively (all P < 0.05). None of the ventilatory parameters differed between groups (all P > 0.05). In addition, COVID-19 survivors also presented with blunted chronotropic responses (i.e., chronotropic index, maximum heart rate, and heart rate recovery; all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that COVID-19 negatively affects central (chronotropic) and peripheral (metabolic) factors that impair the rate at which V̇o2 is adjusted to changes in energy demands.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings provide novel data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on submaximal and maximal cardiopulmonary responses to exercise. We showed that V̇o2 kinetics is significantly impaired at both the onset (on-transient) and the recovery phase (off-transient) of exercise in these patients. Furthermore, our results suggest that survivors of severe COVID-19 may have a higher metabolic demand at a walking pace. These findings may partly explain the exertional intolerance frequently observed following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen Consumption , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Kinetics , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
7.
Physiol Rep ; 10(5): e15201, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743019

ABSTRACT

We assessed PET-CT myocardial blood flow (MBF) using N-13 ammonia, brachial flow-mediated dilation, and cardiopulmonary exercise test in five post-discarged MIS-C survivors. None of the patients (median age: 9, range: 7-18 years; 3 females; 2 males) had preexisting pediatric chronic conditions. At the follow-up visit, two patients exhibited severe perfusion defect developed in the left ventricular cavity, suggesting extensive myocardial ischemia (MBF <2.0) and one patient showed persistent mild pericardial effusion. Others two patients demonstrated endothelial dysfunction. Nevertheless, all patients had lower predicted values in the VO2peak , VO2VAT , OUES, and O2 Pulse (range: 35.2%-64.5%; 15.6%-38.2%; 1.0-1.3 L/min; 4-7 ml/beat), respectively. Our d suggested that previously health MIS-C patients had impaired MBF, endothelial dysfunction and lower cardiopulmonary capacity at follow-up analysis. Multidisciplinary further investigations should be conducted to reinforce these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Frontiers in sports and active living ; 3, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652070

ABSTRACT

In the current scenario, in which an elevated number of COVID-19 survivors present with severe physical deconditioning, exercise intolerance, persistent symptoms, and other post-acute consequences, effective rehabilitation strategies are of utmost relevance. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of home-based exercise training (HBET) in a survivor patient from critical COVID-19 illness. A 67-year-old woman who had critical COVID-19 disease [71 days of hospitalization, of which 49 days were in the intensive care unit (ICU) with invasive mechanical ventilation due to respiratory failure] underwent a 10-week HBET aiming to recovering overall physical condition. Before and after the intervention, we assessed cardiopulmonary parameters, skeletal muscle strength and functionality, fatigue severity, and self-reported persistent symptoms. At baseline (3 months after discharge), she presented with severe impairment in cardiorespiratory functional capacity (<50% age predicted VO2peak). After the intervention, remarkable improvements in VO2peak (from 10.61 to 15.48 mL·kg−1·min−1, Δ: 45.9%), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES;from 1.0 to 1.3 L·min−1, Δ: 30.1%), HR/VO2 slope (from 92 to 52 bpm·L−1, Δ: −43.5%), the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio (from 35.4 to 32.9 L·min−1, Δ: −7.1%), and exertional dyspnea were observed. In addition, handgrip strength (from 22 to 27 kg, Δ: 22.7%), 30-s Sit-to-Stand (30-STS;from 14 to 16 repetitions, Δ:14.3%), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG;from 8.25 to 7.01 s, Δ: −15%) performance and post-COVID functional status (PCFS) score (from 4 to 2) were also improved from baseline to post-intervention. Self-reported persistent symptoms were also improved, and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score decreased (from 4 to 2.7) from baseline to post-intervention. This is the first evidence that a semi-supervised, HBET program may be safe and potentially effective in improving cardiorespiratory and physical functionality in COVID-19 survivors. Controlled studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate demographic, anthropometric and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of surviving pediatric post-COVID-19 patients (n=53) and pediatric subjects without laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 included as controls (n=52) was performed. RESULTS: The median duration between COVID-19 diagnosis (n=53) and follow-up was 4.4 months (0.8-10.7). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) patients reported at least one persistent symptom at the longitudinal follow-up visit and 12/53 (23%) had long COVID-19, with at least one symptom lasting for >12 weeks. The most frequently reported symptoms at the longitudinal follow-up visit were headache (19%), severe recurrent headache (9%), tiredness (9%), dyspnea (8%), and concentration difficulty (4%). At the longitudinal follow-up visit, the frequencies of anemia (11% versus 0%, p=0.030), lymphopenia (42% versus 18%, p=0.020), C-reactive protein level of >30 mg/L (35% versus 0%, p=0.0001), and D-dimer level of >1000 ng/mL (43% versus 6%, p=0.0004) significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Chest X-ray abnormalities (11% versus 2%, p=0.178) and cardiac alterations on echocardiogram (33% versus 22%, p=0.462) were similar at both visits. Comparison of characteristic data between patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit and controls showed similar age (p=0.962), proportion of male sex (p=0.907), ethnicity (p=0.566), family minimum monthly wage (p=0.664), body mass index (p=0.601), and pediatric pre-existing chronic conditions (p=1.000). The Pediatric Quality of Live Inventory 4.0 scores, median physical score (69 [0-100] versus 81 [34-100], p=0.012), and school score (60 [15-100] versus 70 [15-95], p=0.028) were significantly lower in pediatric patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 showed a longitudinal impact on HRQoL parameters, particularly in physical/school domains, reinforcing the need for a prospective multidisciplinary approach for these patients. These data highlight the importance of closer monitoring of children and adolescents by the clinical team after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Latin America , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
11.
Coronavirus-19 Pandemics Facial Mask Respiratory Protective Devices Resistance Performance Physical Activity Population Education Exercise Oxygen Consumption Coronavirus-19 Infection Coronavirus-19 Pandemia Máscara Dispositivo de Proteção Respiratória Atividade Física Desempenho Aeróbio Educação da População Exercício Consumo de Oxigênio Infecção por Coronavírus Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems Cardiovascular System & Cardiology ; 2021(Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia)
Article in Portuguese | 07 | ID: covidwho-1390196
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