Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(634): eabn7842, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723505

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that have mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by preexisting immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wild-type (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses, whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
2.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 226(2):297-298, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1649811
3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(635): eabm7853, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630954

ABSTRACT

A damaging inflammatory response is implicated in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but mechanisms contributing to this response are unclear. In two prospective cohorts, early non-neutralizing, afucosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were associated with progression from mild to more severe COVID-19. To study the biology of afucosylated IgG immune complexes, we developed an in vivo model that revealed that human IgG-Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions could regulate inflammation in the lung. Afucosylated IgG immune complexes isolated from patients with COVID-19 induced inflammatory cytokine production and robust infiltration of the lung by immune cells. In contrast to the antibody structures that were associated with disease progression, antibodies that were elicited by messenger RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly fucosylated and enriched in sialylation, both modifications that reduce the inflammatory potential of IgG. Vaccine-elicited IgG did not promote an inflammatory lung response. These results show that human IgG-FcγR interactions regulate inflammation in the lung and define distinct lung activities mediated by the IgG that are associated with protection against, or progression to, severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296918

ABSTRACT

Studies are needed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, and the levels of protection provided to their newborns through placental transfer of antibodies. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of mRNA vaccine products and functional anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during pregnancy and early infancy in a cohort of 20 individuals vaccinated during pregnancy. We found no evidence of mRNA vaccine products in maternal blood, placenta tissue, or cord blood at delivery. However, we found time-dependent efficient transfer of IgG and neutralizing antibodies to the neonate that persisted during early infancy. Additionally, using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing, we found a vaccine-specific signature of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein epitope binding that is transplacentally transferred during pregnancy. In conclusion, products of mRNA vaccines are not transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, however timing of vaccination during pregnancy is critical to ensure transplacental transfer of protective antibodies during early infancy.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296833

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there is limited data comparing vaccine versus infection-induced nAb to COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines were matched with 30 naturally infected women by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the five SARS-CoV-2 Spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped Spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared to wild type or Alpha variant Spike, these nAbs were less effective against the Kappa, Delta, and Mu Spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher nAb levels at delivery than infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared to infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level/maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicit effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that is impacted by gestational time of exposure. Vaccine induced neutralizing activity was reduced against the Delta, Mu, and Kappa variants. Graphic abstract

7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294815

ABSTRACT

Background Data regarding adverse events observed in the lactating mother-infant dyad and their immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during lactation are needed to inform vaccination guidelines. Methods From a prospective cohort of 50 lactating individuals who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2), blood and milk samples were collected prior to first vaccination dose, immediately prior to 2nd dose, and 4-10 weeks after 2nd dose. Symptoms in mother and infant were assessed by detailed questionnaires. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in blood and milk were measured by Pylon 3D automated immunoassay and ELISA. In addition, vaccine-related PEGylated proteins in milk were measured by ELISA. Blood samples were collected from a subset of infants whose mothers received the vaccine during lactation (4-15 weeks after mothers’ 2nd dose). Results No severe maternal or infant adverse events were reported in this cohort. Two mothers and two infants were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period. PEGylated proteins, were not found at significant levels in milk after vaccination. After vaccination, levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM significantly increased in maternal plasma and there was significant transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2-Receptor Binding Domain (anti-RBD) IgA and IgG antibodies to milk. Milk IgA levels after the 2nd dose were negatively associated with infant age. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were not detected in the plasma of infants whose mothers were vaccinated during lactation. Conclusions COVID-19 mRNA vaccines generate robust immune responses in plasma and milk of lactating individuals without severe adverse events reported.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 777103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528826

ABSTRACT

Background: Data regarding symptoms in the lactating mother-infant dyad and their immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during lactation are needed to inform vaccination guidelines. Methods: From a prospective cohort of 50 lactating individuals who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2), blood and milk samples were collected prior to first vaccination dose, immediately prior to 2nd dose, and 4-10 weeks after 2nd dose. Symptoms in mother and infant were assessed by detailed questionnaires. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in blood and milk were measured by Pylon 3D automated immunoassay and ELISA. In addition, vaccine-related PEGylated proteins in milk were measured by ELISA. Blood samples were collected from a subset of infants whose mothers received the vaccine during lactation (4-15 weeks after mothers' 2nd dose). Results: No severe maternal or infant adverse events were reported in this cohort. Two mothers and two infants were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period before achieving full immune response. PEGylated proteins were not found at significant levels in milk after vaccination. After vaccination, levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM significantly increased in maternal plasma and there was significant transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2-Receptor Binding Domain (anti-RBD) IgA and IgG antibodies to milk. Milk IgA levels after the 2nd dose were negatively associated with infant age. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were not detected in the plasma of infants whose mothers were vaccinated during lactation. Conclusions: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines generate robust immune responses in plasma and milk of lactating individuals without severe adverse events reported.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Lactation/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2810-e2813, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501000

ABSTRACT

Infant outcomes after maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well described. In a prospective US registry of 263 infants, maternal SARS-CoV-2 status was not associated with birth weight, difficulty breathing, apnea, or upper or lower respiratory infection through 8 weeks of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e053036, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate maternal immunoglobulins' (IgM, IgG) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and IgG transplacental transfer, to characterise neonatal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to longitudinally follow actively and passively acquired antibodies in infants. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Public healthcare system in Santa Clara County (California, USA). PARTICIPANTS: Women with symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and their infants were enrolled between 15 April 2020 and 31 March 2021. OUTCOMES: SARS-CoV-2 serology analyses in the cord and maternal blood at delivery and longitudinally in infant blood between birth and 28 weeks of life. RESULTS: Of 145 mothers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, 86 had symptomatic infections: 78 with mild-moderate symptoms, and 8 with severe-critical symptoms. The seropositivity rates of the mothers at delivery was 65% (95% CI 0.56% to 0.73%) and the cord blood was 58% (95% CI 0.49% to 0.66%). IgG levels significantly correlated between the maternal and cord blood (Rs=0.93, p<0.0001). IgG transplacental transfer ratio was significantly higher when the first maternal positive PCR was 60-180 days before delivery compared with <60 days (1.2 vs 0.6, p<0.0001). Infant IgG seroreversion rates over follow-up periods of 1-4, 5-12, and 13-28 weeks were 8% (4 of 48), 12% (3 of 25), and 38% (5 of 13), respectively. The IgG seropositivity in the infants was positively related to IgG levels in the cord blood and persisted up to 6 months of age. Two newborns showed seroconversion at 2 weeks of age with high levels of IgM and IgG, including one premature infant with confirmed intrapartum infection. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 IgG is efficiently transferred across the placenta when infections occur more than 2 months before delivery. Maternally derived passive immunity may persist in infants up to 6 months of life. Neonates are capable of mounting a strong antibody response to perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL