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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9):e0272840, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2021894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has emerged as a global pandemic causing millions of critical cases and deaths. Early identification of at-risk patients is crucial for planning triage and treatment strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled prognostic significance of procalcitonin in predicting mortality and severity in patients with COVID-19 using a robust methodology and clear clinical implications. DESIGN: We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions guidelines. We included thirty-two prospective and retrospective cohort studies involving 13,154 patients. RESULTS: The diagnostic odds ratio of procalcitonin for predicting mortality were estimated to be 11 (95% CI: 7 to 17) with sensitivity, specificity, and summary area under the curveof 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.91), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.79), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.86) respectively. While for identifying severe cases of COVID-19, the odds ratio was 8.0 (95% CI 5.0 to 12.0) with sensitivity, specificity, and summary area under the curve of 0.73 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.78), 0.74 (0.66 to 0.81), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.82) respectively. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin has good discriminatory power for predicting mortality and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, procalcitonin measurement may help identify potentially severe cases and thus decrease mortality by offering early aggressive treatment.

2.
Sumedha Journal of Management ; 11(2):63-67, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871144

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 has been an extraordinary year for nations across the globe. In India, aside from Covid19, one of the significant changes that occurred was the advancement of the New Education Policy (NEP) 2020. Time by time, different boards of trustees have suggested expanding the allotment of the spending plan for training to 6% of the GDP, this has prompted the interest of specialists. This paper expects to recognize the worries and focal point of NEP 2020. The creators have used subjective information investigation strategies to comprehend basic areas of focal point of strategy records and PC helped subjective information examination programming to resolve the issues. The examination likewise utilizes information from Twitter. The information (strategy archives) was downloaded from the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) site. The paper recognizes three urgent parts of the arrangement - course, language, and understudies, for the advanced education area. This paper additionally examines the feeling investigation, connected with NEP 2020. It was found that the vast majority think about the strategy a positive and inviting advance.

3.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(3):427-430, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835277

ABSTRACT

As the knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is increasing day by day, we are learning about various manifestations of COVID-19. The disease is a systemic illness that also involves the gastrointestinal system including the pancreas. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a pancreatic type of pain abdomen. She was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (AP) based on clinical symptoms, ≥3 times the elevation of serum amylase, and imaging evidence of AP. Her Bedside Index of Severity in AP was 2/5 and the Modified Computed Tomography Severity Index was 10/10. She had positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. Her workup for common and rare causes of AP was negative. She was managed conservatively as per standard protocol for the management of AP. The aim of this case is to highlight the importance of causal association of COVID-19 with AP. © 2021 Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

4.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 116:S37-S38, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799991
5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 116:S57-S57, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799947
6.
Indian Journal of Rheumatology ; 17(1):30-33, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798824

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous exposure to Rituximab affects the immunogenicity of vaccination including that against coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, dynamics of the effect of rituximab on vaccination are not well understood. This study aims to assess the role of timing of vaccine dosing and B-cell repopulation on vaccine seroconversion. Methods: Autoimmune rheumatic disease (AIRD) patients treated with rituximab who had completed two doses of COVID-19 vaccination were enrolled. Peripheral B-cell counts were estimated along with the titer of immunoglobulin G antibody-directed against the receptor-binding domain of spike1 protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Antibody titers of participants were compared against B-cell re-population. Results: Out of the 33 participants with available prevaccination B-cell counts, 11 did not have any detectable peripheral B cells before vaccination, and out of these patients, only 1 developed antibodies postvaccination, whereas, of the remaining 22, 18 (81.8%) had a positive seroconversion. Although all patients who had received the last dose of Rituximab at least 1 year before vaccination had antibodies, there was no direct correlation between time from the last dose and antibody positivity. B-cell re-population was strongly associated with seroconversion (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: In rituximab-treated patients, humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination depend on peripheral B-cell re-population rather than the timing of the vaccination postrituximab infusion.

7.
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 16(3):534-539, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic is the most daunting challenge for humankind in the current scenario. Healthcare personnel (HCPs) being at forefront dealing with pandemic, have been prioritized to get inoculated against COVID-19. However, literature has limited information regarding HCPs intention to get vaccinated and their concerns regarding the same. Therefore, this study was done to assess Indian HCPs awareness, attitude, and perception toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Materials and Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted using the convenience sampling method. A validated questionnaire was designed in English and was mailed to all the participants through link of Google form and also through social media platforms. A total of 815 HCPs responses were obtained. Results: Of the 815 responses 452 were willing for the COVID-19 vaccine. Five hundred and eighty-three HCPs have shown trust in the Science and Ministry of Health for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Four hundred and sixty-one of HCPs were of the opinion that India is going slow on the vaccination drive and 620 of them feel the need to accelerate the drive. Conclusions: High acceptance and low hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccine demands increased vaccine coverage by Indian HCPs. Addressing this demand requires possible intervention by the participation of the private sector which will help to accept the national vaccination program to a wider scale, thereby combating the future wave of the pandemic. © 2022 Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

8.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control ; 76:103631, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1748175

ABSTRACT

The major intention of this work is to detect the Brain tumor with accuracy by reducing error rate and computational complexity. Therefore, in this manuscript, a Deep Convolutional Neural Network with Nature-inspired Res net 152 Transfer Learning model using CNN and Transfer learning tactics is proposed to detect and classify the brain images. Here, the images are pre-processed to remove the noises, also enhance the quality of the images by using Otsu binarization method. The image features, like contrast, Energy, Correlation, Homogeneity, Entropy are extracted with the help of Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix methods. Then, the images are classified using the hybrid Deep Convolutional Neural Network with Nature-inspired Res Net 152 Transfer Learning (Hyb-DCNN-ResNet 152 TL), in which the batch normalization layer of the Deep CNN is removed and added with ResNet 152 layer. Here, hybrid Deep Convolutional Neural Network with Nature-inspired Res Net 152 Transfer Learning classifies as normal, benign and malignant. Then the Hyb-DCNN-ResNet 152 TL weight parameters are tuned using Covid-19 optimization algorithm (CoV-19 OA). The simulation process is executed in the MATLAB platform. The proposed method attains higher accuracy of 99.57%, 97.28%, 94.31%, 95.48%, 96.38%, 98.41% and 96.34%, lower Error rate of 0.012(s), 0.014(s), 0.011(s), 1.052(S), 0.013(S), 0.016(S) and 0.015(s) compared with existing methods, like BTC-Deep CNN-Dolphin-SCA, BTC-Deep CNN-WHHO, BTC-AFDNN-FLA, BTC-MLPNN-IWOA, BTC-ANN-PSO, BTC-RF-WSO and BTC-WRF-ACO.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S271, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746662

ABSTRACT

Background. Nearly 4 million children have tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States. Some studies suggest infants might be at increased risk for severe illness and hospitalization from COVID-19. Our objective was to describe the clinical and laboratory features of young infants admitted to a hospital system with COVID-19. Methods. An observational retrospective study was performed in infants ≤1 year of age admitted with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020 to May 30, 2021. Data was extracted into a REDCap database and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results. Sixteen infants < 1 year were hospitalized with COVID-19. Fever, poor feeding, and respiratory symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms (Table 1). Two required pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) care, three required oxygen support, and one was intubated. There were no deaths. Five infants with echocardiograms performed showed normal findings. Four infants received Remdesivir without side effects. Conclusion. Infants with COVID-19 can present with severe disease requiring ICU care and oxygen support. In our experience, a large proportion of infants developed hematologic abnormalities, but none had cardiac involvement. Preventive measures including vaccination will become critical to decrease transmission and severe disease in this young patient population.

10.
MEDLINE; 2022.
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-329769

ABSTRACT

Background: Among systemic abnormalities caused by the novel coronavirus, little is known about the critical attack on the central nervous system (CNS). Few studies have shown cerebrovascular pathologies that indicate CNS involvement in acute patients. However, replication studies are necessary to verify if these effects persist in COVID-19 survivors more conclusively. Furthermore, recent studies indicate fatigue is highly prevalent among 'long-COVID' patients. How morphometry in each group relate to work-related fatigue need to be investigated. Method: COVID survivors were MRI scanned two weeks after hospital discharge. We hypothesized, these survivors will demonstrate altered gray matter volume (GMV) and experience higher fatigue levels when compared to healthy controls, leading to stronger correlation of GMV with fatigue. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on T1-weighted MRI images between 46 survivors and 30 controls. Unpaired two-sample t-test and multiple linear regression were performed to observe group differences and correlation of fatigue with GMV. Results: The COVID group experienced significantly higher fatigue levels and GMV of this group was significantly higher within the Limbic System and Basal Ganglia when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, while a significant positive correlation was observed across the whole group between GMV and self-reported fatigue, COVID subjects showed stronger effects within the Posterior Cingulate, Precuneus and Superior Parietal Lobule . Conclusion: Brain regions with GMV alterations in our analysis align with both single case acute patient reports and current group level neuroimaging findings. We also newly report a stronger positive correlation of GMV with fatigue among COVID survivors within brain regions associated with fatigue, indicating a link between structural abnormality and brain function in this cohort.

11.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 116:S57-S57, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1720048
12.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 116:S37-S38, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1720008
13.
Impacts and Implications of COVID-19: An Analytical and Empirical Study ; : 63-85, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1717474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has upset the world in the years 2019-20. Every business and sector got affected due to the circumstances created by this epidemic. We should know the virology, epidemiology, and safeguards needed to take in this pandemic to understand its impact. Due to its highly contiguous nature, it is essential to save the next generation from its impact as much as possible. The education sector is one of the sectors, which have a huge number of youngsters evolved. Governments around the world have closed their educational institutes physically to stop its spread in public. But, this has raised the issue of hampering continuous education. Our article discussed the impacts, policies, capabilities, and responses taken by the Indian education sector during this pandemic lockdown. Also, we have examined the role of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Tools and the Indian Government, which have enabled the students of Indian educational institutes to learn and continue their knowledge acquiring process. © 2021 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

14.
Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology ; 10(2):198-205, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1716077

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) is a beta-coronavirus (beta-CoV;sarbecovirus), like its predecessors SARS and MERS CoVs. Of the structural proteins of the virus, the Spike (S) protein on the virion envelope binds to the host cell ACE2 through viral epitopes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Deletions in the ORF8 as well as mutations in the S gene of SARS-CoV of 2003 were related to adaptation of the virus to humans. The emergence of novel variants of SARS-CoV-2, viz., B.1.1.7, B.1.427 and B.1.429, B.1.617 and its Kappa and Delta strains/ variants, B.1.351, and P.1 in the United Kingdom, Americas, India, South Africa and Brazil, respectively, has been found be associated with the current waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. These variants are antigenically dissimilar, whereas the current COVID-19 vaccines are monovalent. This is a handicap in the control program. The Delta variant has been reported in 74 countries as of 14 June 2021 and the anticipated third wave involving this variant is of concern to the countries (www.gavi.org). Of late, on 17 June 2021, Delta Plus variant was identified in India (AIIMS, Bhopal, India). Circulation of virus in vaccinated population may lead to endemicity, and this can be monitored by regular serosurveillance for antibodies against select non-structural proteins (NSPs) of the virus;antibodies to NSPs will indicate virus replication in the host. Endemic areas will have higher NSP reactors. It is predicted that the Delta B.1 variant may ignite the third wave of the disease in many countries. As it has been difficult to achieve uniformity in time and density of the vaccination even in the districts, circulation of the virus in partially immune population may lead to the selection of newer variants of SARS-CoV-2. The presence of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants and neutralization—escape mutants in quasispecies structure of another + sense RNA virus, i.e., Aphthovirus (FMD virus;foot and mouth disease virus) in the family Picornaviridae is well documented. The situation could be similar in the Coronaviridae member SARS-CoV-2. Previous immunity may not protect against current/ future mutants thereby pro-longing the COVID-19 control Programme. © 2022 Sharanagouda S. Patil et al.

15.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1702227
16.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-327327

ABSTRACT

The recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected all aspects of life around the world. Neuroimaging evidence suggests the novel coronavirus can attack the central nervous system (CNS), causing cerebro-vascular abnormalities in the brain. This can lead to focal changes in cerebral blood flow and metabolic oxygen consumption rate in the brain. However, the extent and spatial locations of brain alterations in COVID-19 survivors are largely unknown. In this study, we have assessed brain functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) in 38 (25 males) COVID patients two weeks after hospital discharge, when PCR negative and 31 (24 males) healthy subjects. FC was estimated using independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression. The COVID group demonstrated significantly enhanced FC in regions from the Occipital and Parietal Lobes, comparing to the HC group. On the other hand, the COVID group exhibited significantly reduced FC in several vermal layers of the cerebellum. More importantly, we noticed negative correlation of FC with self-reported fatigue within regions from the Parietal lobe, which are known to be associated with fatigue. Significance Statement: Early neuroimaging studies have mostly focused on structural MRI imaging to report brain abnormalities in acutely ill COVID-19 patients. It is not clear whether functional abnormalities co-exist with structural alterations in patients who have survived the infection and have been discharged from the hospital. A few recent studies have emerged which attempted to address the structural/functional alterations. However, further investigations across different sites are necessary for more conclusive inference. More importantly, fatigue is a highly prevalent symptom among COVID survivors, therefore, the relations of brain imaging abnormalities to fatigue should be investigated. In this study, we try to address these gaps, by collecting imaging data from COVID survivors, now PCR negative, and healthy subjects from a single site a" the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi, India. Furthermore, this is a continuation of an ongoing study. We have already submitted a manuscript showing structural abnormalities and gray matter volume correlates of self-reported fatigue among this group of COVID survivors.

17.
Bmj Leader ; : 3, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1666473

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the value of global exchange around knowledge, skills and attitudes among senior healthcare professionals (SHPs). It has also revealed the need for strong peer-led networks and mentorship to tackle the high levels of burnout and 'brain-drain' already plaguing the National Health Service (NHS). We designed a survey to gauge the appetite for exchange programmes among SHPs. Methods Data collection was carried out via an online qualitative survey generated by SurveyMonkey software and analysed by three independent authors. Results 155 responses were collected of which 87.7% were pre-COVID-19 pandemic. 74.2% had ideas to improve healthcare but could not take it forward. 86.6% felt frustrated/down-heartened about work. 74.3% wanted more sharing of teaching resources. 74.2% expressed interest in sabbatical programmes. Conclusion Our survey confirms the desire for more connection, collaboration and exchange among SHPs who are at high risk of burnout, silo-working and leaving the profession early. Sabbaticals have been used successfully in other industries, especially academia, for many years and show long-term investment and value from employers in their employees. Almost 75% of the SHPs in this survey were interested in this but logistics precluded easy access to them. HealthProMatch (HPM) is a platform where SHPs can connect, collaborate and arrange exchanges/sabbaticals with logistical ease. It focuses on bringing leadership, mentorship and quality improvement back home. HPM will pilot in the NHS within anaesthesia and hopes to increase job satisfaction and retention in this precious workforce group.

18.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100931, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS CoV2 continues to pose a threat to human race even after one year of its outset in China. Observational studies from across the world have shown huge disparity in the clinicoepidemiological and laboratory features of this disease. In this study we attempt to assess the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory parameters of COVID 19 positive patients in this geographic location. METHODS: This is a descriptive retrospective study of patients who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at a tertiary care centre in central Kerala, India between July 16, 2020 and November 30, 2020. The clinicoepidemiological and laboratory parameters of the confirmed patients were collected from the laboratory and hospital records and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 1051 patients were tested positive during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 45.7 years ± Standard Deviation (SD): 8.68; 51.76% were male. Among them 658 (62.61%) were symptomatic and 393(37.39%) were asymptomatic; males (54.7%) were more symptomatic than females (45.3%). The common presenting symptoms were fever (43.58%), cough (21.50%), myalgia or fatigue (10.28%). Lymphocytopenia was more in males than females. Laboratory parameters such as Serum Ferritin, Alanine Transferase, Aspartate Transferase, Sodium level were elevated in males compared to female. CONCLUSION: The common symptoms in our study could emphasize on identifying potential patients in this geographic area. Asymptomatic patients should be monitored and investigated for effective control of the disease. A knowledge about the disease presentation in each geographic area is important in planning the effective management strategies since the features are varied from place to place.

20.
Brain Stimulation ; 14(6):1715, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1530659

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure of the central nervous system to extremely low frequency and low intensity electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) increases plasticity-related processes, with associated clinical improvements. Aim: The purpose of this RCT was to explore the benefit of BrainQ’s novel and non-invasive stimulation device which uses frequency-tuned ELF-EMF treatment (BQ) to reduce general disability and improve upper extremity motor function (UEMF) in subacute ischemic stroke. Methods: Study was planned for n=50, but was discontinued due to COVID-19 at n=25. Participants were randomized to receive 40 minutes of BQ (active or sham) 5 days/week, for 8 weeks, with 10 minutes of PT. BQ uses brain-computer interface-based machine learning algorithms to extract motor-related spectral features in EEG for use as treatment frequencies, and is delivered via a wearable and portable device. Results: Primary endpoint: Fugl-Meyer Assessment – Upper Extremity improved significantly (and sooner) in the treatment group versus sham at W4 (23.2±3.91 vs. 9.9±3.2;13.6 points greater than sham p=0.0070) and after 8 weeks of treatment (31.5±2.97 vs. 23.1±4.99;p=0.0611). Secondary endpoints: Most strikingly, and as a major clinical indication of reduced disability, mRS, at W9 the treatment group showed a mean improvement of 2.5±0.18 points versus 1.3±0.16 points in the sham group (p=0.0005), i.e., a mean of 1.2 points higher than that of the sham group. Significant improvements were also observed in the ARAT–Pinch subscale (W9: p=0.0082), BBT (W6: p=0.0169;W9: p<0.0001), and NIHSS (W9: p=0.0340). Conclusion: BQ treatment significantly reduces general disability and improves UEMF in subacute ischemic stroke across multiple metrics. A pivotal study is planned, with an explicit motivation of moving toward home use, for a more patient-centric approach. Keywords: Brain computer interface, Non-invasive brain stimulation, Neurological recovery, Stroke

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