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1.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 8(1): e12348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047953

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused >3.5 million deaths worldwide and affected >160 million people. At least twice as many have been infected but remained asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. COVID-19 includes central nervous system manifestations mediated by inflammation and cerebrovascular, anoxic, and/or viral neurotoxicity mechanisms. More than one third of patients with COVID-19 develop neurologic problems during the acute phase of the illness, including loss of sense of smell or taste, seizures, and stroke. Damage or functional changes to the brain may result in chronic sequelae. The risk of incident cognitive and neuropsychiatric complications appears independent from the severity of the original pulmonary illness. It behooves the scientific and medical community to attempt to understand the molecular and/or systemic factors linking COVID-19 to neurologic illness, both short and long term. Methods: This article describes what is known so far in terms of links among COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. We focus on risk factors and possible molecular, inflammatory, and viral mechanisms underlying neurological injury. We also provide a comprehensive description of the Alzheimer's Association Consortium on Chronic Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (CNS SC2) harmonized methodology to address these questions using a worldwide network of researchers and institutions. Results: Successful harmonization of designs and methods was achieved through a consensus process initially fragmented by specific interest groups (epidemiology, clinical assessments, cognitive evaluation, biomarkers, and neuroimaging). Conclusions from subcommittees were presented to the whole group and discussed extensively. Presently data collection is ongoing at 19 sites in 12 countries representing Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Discussion: The Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium harmonized methodology is proposed as a model to study long-term neurocognitive sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Key Points: The following review describes what is known so far in terms of molecular and epidemiological links among COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and AD and related dementias (ADRD)The primary objective of this large-scale collaboration is to clarify the pathogenesis of ADRD and to advance our understanding of the impact of a neurotropic virus on the long-term risk of cognitive decline and other CNS sequelae. No available evidence supports the notion that cognitive impairment after SARS-CoV-2 infection is a form of dementia (ADRD or otherwise). The longitudinal methodologies espoused by the consortium are intended to provide data to answer this question as clearly as possible controlling for possible confounders. Our specific hypothesis is that SARS-CoV-2 triggers ADRD-like pathology following the extended olfactory cortical network (EOCN) in older individuals with specific genetic susceptibility.The proposed harmonization strategies and flexible study designs offer the possibility to include large samples of under-represented racial and ethnic groups, creating a rich set of harmonized cohorts for future studies of the pathophysiology, determinants, long-term consequences, and trends in cognitive aging, ADRD, and vascular disease.We provide a framework for current and future studies to be carried out within the Consortium. and offers a "green paper" to the research community with a very broad, global base of support, on tools suitable for low- and middle-income countries aimed to compare and combine future longitudinal data on the topic.The Consortium proposes a combination of design and statistical methods as a means of approaching causal inference of the COVID-19 neuropsychiatric sequelae. We expect that deep phenotyping of neuropsychiatric sequelae may provide a series of candidate syndromes with phenomenological and biological characterization that can be further explored. By generating high-quality harmonized data across sites we aim to capture both descriptive and, where possible, causal associations.

2.
de Erausquin, Gabriel A.; Snyder, Heather, Brugha, Traolach S.; Seshadri, Sudha, Carrillo, Maria, Sagar, Rajesh, Huang, Yueqin, Newton, Charles, Tartaglia, Carmela, Teunissen, Charlotte, Håkanson, Krister, Akinyemi, Rufus, Prasad, Kameshwar, D'Avossa, Giovanni, Gonzalez‐Aleman, Gabriela, Hosseini, Akram, Vavougios, George D.; Sachdev, Perminder, Bankart, John, Mors, Niels Peter Ole, Lipton, Richard, Katz, Mindy, Fox, Peter T.; Katshu, Mohammad Zia, Iyengar, M. Sriram, Weinstein, Galit, Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Jenkins, Rachel, Stein, Dan J.; Hugon, Jacques, Mavreas, Venetsanos, Blangero, John, Cruchaga, Carlos, Krishna, Murali, Wadoo, Ovais, Becerra, Rodrigo, Zwir, Igor, Longstreth, William T.; Kroenenberg, Golo, Edison, Paul, Mukaetova‐Ladinska, Elizabeta, Staufenberg, Ekkehart, Figueredo‐Aguiar, Mariana, Yécora, Agustín, Vaca, Fabiana, Zamponi, Hernan P.; Re, Vincenzina Lo, Majid, Abdul, Sundarakumar, Jonas, Gonzalez, Hector M.; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Skoog, Ingmar, Salmoiraghi, Alberto, Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli, Patel, Vibuthi N.; Santos, Juan M.; Arroyo, Guillermo Rivera, Moreno, Antonio Caballero, Felix, Pascal, Gallo, Carla, Arai, Hidenori, Yamada, Masahito, Iwatsubo, Takeshi, Sharma, Malveeka, Chakraborty, Nandini, Ferreccio, Catterina, Akena, Dickens, Brayne, Carol, Maestre, Gladys, Blangero, Sarah Williams, Brusco, Luis I.; Siddarth, Prabha, Hughes, Timothy M.; Zuñiga, Alfredo Ramírez, Kambeitz, Joseph, Laza, Agustin Ruiz, Allen, Norrina, Panos, Stella, Merrill, David, Ibáñez, Agustín, Tsuang, Debby, Valishvili, Nino, Shrestha, Srishti, Wang, Sophia, Padma, Vasantha, Anstey, Kaarin J.; Ravindrdanath, Vijayalakshmi, Blennow, Kaj, Mullins, Paul, Łojek, Emilia, Pria, Anand, Mosley, Thomas H.; Gowland, Penny, Girard, Timothy D.; Bowtell, Richard, Vahidy, Farhaan S..
Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) ; 8(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045308

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has caused >3.5 million deaths worldwide and affected >160 million people. At least twice as many have been infected but remained asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. COVID‐19 includes central nervous system manifestations mediated by inflammation and cerebrovascular, anoxic, and/or viral neurotoxicity mechanisms. More than one third of patients with COVID‐19 develop neurologic problems during the acute phase of the illness, including loss of sense of smell or taste, seizures, and stroke. Damage or functional changes to the brain may result in chronic sequelae. The risk of incident cognitive and neuropsychiatric complications appears independent from the severity of the original pulmonary illness. It behooves the scientific and medical community to attempt to understand the molecular and/or systemic factors linking COVID‐19 to neurologic illness, both short and long term. Methods This article describes what is known so far in terms of links among COVID‐19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. We focus on risk factors and possible molecular, inflammatory, and viral mechanisms underlying neurological injury. We also provide a comprehensive description of the Alzheimer's Association Consortium on Chronic Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection (CNS SC2) harmonized methodology to address these questions using a worldwide network of researchers and institutions. Results Successful harmonization of designs and methods was achieved through a consensus process initially fragmented by specific interest groups (epidemiology, clinical assessments, cognitive evaluation, biomarkers, and neuroimaging). Conclusions from subcommittees were presented to the whole group and discussed extensively. Presently data collection is ongoing at 19 sites in 12 countries representing Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Discussion The Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium harmonized methodology is proposed as a model to study long‐term neurocognitive sequelae of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Key Points The following review describes what is known so far in terms of molecular and epidemiological links among COVID‐19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and AD and related dementias (ADRD) The primary objective of this large‐scale collaboration is to clarify the pathogenesis of ADRD and to advance our understanding of the impact of a neurotropic virus on the long‐term risk of cognitive decline and other CNS sequelae. No available evidence supports the notion that cognitive impairment after SARS‐CoV‐2 infection is a form of dementia (ADRD or otherwise). The longitudinal methodologies espoused by the consortium are intended to provide data to answer this question as clearly as possible controlling for possible confounders. Our specific hypothesis is that SARS‐CoV‐2 triggers ADRD‐like pathology following the extended olfactory cortical network (EOCN) in older individuals with specific genetic susceptibility. The proposed harmonization strategies and flexible study designs offer the possibility to include large samples of under‐represented racial and ethnic groups, creating a rich set of harmonized cohorts for future studies of the pathophysiology, determinants, long‐term consequences, and trends in cognitive aging, ADRD, and vascular disease. We provide a framework for current and future studies to be carried out within the Consortium. and offers a “green paper” to the research community with a very broad, global base of support, on tools suitable for low‐ and middle‐income countries aimed to compare and combine future longitudinal data on the topic. The Consortium proposes a combination of design and statistical methods as a means of approaching causal inference of the COVID‐19 neuropsychiatric sequelae. We expect that deep phenotyping of neuropsychiatric sequelae may provide a series of candidate syndromes with phenomenological and biologic l character zation that can be further explored. By generating high‐quality harmonized data across sites we aim to capture both descriptive and, where possible, causal associations.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has emerged as a global pandemic causing millions of critical cases and deaths. Early identification of at-risk patients is crucial for planning triage and treatment strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled prognostic significance of procalcitonin in predicting mortality and severity in patients with COVID-19 using a robust methodology and clear clinical implications. DESIGN: We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions guidelines. We included thirty-two prospective and retrospective cohort studies involving 13,154 patients. RESULTS: The diagnostic odds ratio of procalcitonin for predicting mortality were estimated to be 11 (95% CI: 7 to 17) with sensitivity, specificity, and summary area under the curveof 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.91), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.79), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.86) respectively. While for identifying severe cases of COVID-19, the odds ratio was 8.0 (95% CI 5.0 to 12.0) with sensitivity, specificity, and summary area under the curve of 0.73 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.78), 0.74 (0.66 to 0.81), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.82) respectively. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin has good discriminatory power for predicting mortality and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, procalcitonin measurement may help identify potentially severe cases and thus decrease mortality by offering early aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Procalcitonin , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; : appineuropsych22010002, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962561

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy, a common condition among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, can be a challenge to manage and negatively affect prognosis. While encephalopathy may present clinically as delirium, subsyndromal delirium, or coma and may be a result of systemic causes such as hypoxia, COVID-19 has also been associated with more prolonged encephalopathy due to less common but nevertheless severe complications, such as inflammation of the brain parenchyma (with or without cerebrovascular involvement), demyelination, or seizures, which may be disproportionate to COVID-19 severity and require specific management. Given the large number of patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, even these relatively unlikely complications are increasingly recognized and are particularly important because they require specific management. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide pragmatic guidance on the management of COVID-19 encephalopathy through consensus agreement of the Global COVID-19 Neuro Research Coalition. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, medRxiv, and bioRxiv was conducted between January 1, 2020, and June 21, 2021, with additional review of references cited within the identified bibliographies. A modified Delphi approach was then undertaken to develop recommendations, along with a parallel approach to score the strength of both the recommendations and the supporting evidence. This review presents analysis of contemporaneous evidence for the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of COVID-19 encephalopathy and practical guidance for clinical assessment, investigation, and both acute and long-term management.

5.
Telemed Rep ; 2(1): 88-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901063

ABSTRACT

Background: Teleneurology consultations can be highly advantageous since neurological diseases and disabilities often limit patient's access to health care, particularly in a setting where they need to travel long distances for specialty consults. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome assessing success of a telemedicine program. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine satisfaction and perception of patients toward an audio call based teleneurology follow-up initiated during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Primary outcomes were satisfaction to tele-consult, and proportion of patients preferring telemedicine for future follow-up. Results: A total of 261 patients who received tele-consult were enrolled. Satisfaction was highest for domain technological quality, followed by patient-physician dialogue (PPD) and least to quality of care (QoC). Median (interquartile range) patient satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale was 4 (3-5). Eighty-five (32.6%; 95% confidence interval 26.9-38.6%) patients preferred telemedicine for future follow-up. Higher overall satisfaction was associated with health condition being stable/better, change in treatment advised on tele-consult, diagnosis not requiring follow-up examination, higher scores on domains QoC and PPD (p < 0.05). Future preference for telemedicine was associated with patient him-/herself consulting with doctor, less duration of follow-up, higher overall satisfaction, and higher scores on domain QoC (p < 0.05). On thematic analysis, telemedicine was found convenient, reduced expenditure, and had better physician attention; in-person visits were comprehensive, had better patient-physician relationship, and better communication. Discussion: Patient satisfaction was lower in our study than what has been observed earlier, which may be explained by the primitive nature of our platform. Several variables related to the patients' disease process have an effect on patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Development of robust, structured platforms is necessary to fully utilize the potential of telemedicine in developing countries.

6.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 76-81, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726289

ABSTRACT

Background: Governments have imposed lockdowns in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals have restricted outpatient clinics and elective services meant for non-COVID illnesses. This has led to patients facing unprecedented challenges and uncertainties. This study was carried out to assess patients' concerns and apprehensions about the effect of the lockdown on their treatments. Materials and Methods: An ambispective, observational cross-sectional single centre study was conducted. Patients were contacted telephonically and requested to answer a structured questionnaire. Their responses were documented and summarized as frequency and proportions. Results: A total of 727 patients were interviewed. Epilepsy (32%) was the most common neurological illness in our cohort followed by stroke (18%). About half the patients and/or their caregivers reported health-related concerns during the lockdown. The primary concern was how to connect with their treating neurologist if need arose. Forty-seven patients (6.4%) had drug default. Among patients on immunomodulatory treatments, only eight patients had drug default. High compliance rates were also observed in the stroke and epilepsy cohorts. Of the 71 patients who required emergency care during the lockdown, 24 could reach our hospital emergency. Fourteen patients either had a delay or could not seek emergency care. Two-thirds of our patients found the telemedicine experience satisfactory. Conclusion: The ongoing pandemic will continue to pose challenges to both physicians and patients. Patients in follow-up may need to be contacted regularly and counselled regarding the importance of maintaining drug compliance. Telemedicine can be used to strengthen the healthcare delivery to patients with non-COVID illnesses.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322674

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine induced immune medicated thrombocytopenia or VITT, is a recent and rare phenomenon of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, frequently including cerebral venous thromboses (CVT), that has been described following vaccination with adenovirus vaccines ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S Johnson and Johnson (Janssen/J&J). The evaluation and management of suspected cases of CVT post COVID-19 vaccination are critical skills for a broad range of healthcare providers. Methods: A collaborative comprehensive review of literature was conducted among a global group of expert neurologists and hematologists. Findings: Strategies for rapid evaluation and treatment of the CVT in the context of possible VITT exist, including inflammatory marker measurements, PF4 assays, and non-heparin anticoagulation. Interpretation: There are many unanswered questions regarding cases of CVT, possibly in association with VITT. Public health specialists should explore ways to enhance public and professional education, surveillance, and reporting of this syndrome to reduce its impact on health and global vaccination efforts. Funding: None

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317002

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy is a common complication of COVID-19 that can both be a challenge to manage and also negatively impacts prognosis. Whilst encephalopathy may be due to common systemic causes, such as hypoxia, COVID-19 has also been associated with more prolonged encephalopathy due to less common but nevertheless severe complications, such as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, cerebrovascular involvement and seizures, which may be disproportionate to COVID-19 severity and which require specific management. The aim of this review is to provide pragmatic guidance on the management of COVID-19 encephalopathy through a consensus agreement of the Global COVID-19 Neuro-Research Coalition.A systematic literature search of Medline, MedRxiv, and BioRx was conducted between 1st January 2020 and 11th June 2021 with additional review of references cited within the identified bibliographies. A modified Delphi-approach was then undertaken to develop recommendations along with a parallel approach to score the strength of both the recommendation and the supporting evidence.This manuscript presents analysis of contemporaneous evidence for definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of COVID-19 encephalopathy and practical guidance for clinical assessment, investigation, and acute and long-term management.

9.
J Neurol ; 269(5): 2265-2274, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479471

ABSTRACT

Acute and post-acute neurological symptoms, signs and diagnoses have been documented in an increasing number of patients infected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we aimed to summarize the current literature addressing neurological events following SARS-CoV-2 infection, discuss limitations in the existing literature and suggest future directions that would strengthen our understanding of the neurological sequelae of COVID-19. The presence of neurological manifestations (symptoms, signs or diagnoses) both at the onset or during SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a more severe disease, as demonstrated by a longer hospital stay, higher in-hospital death rate or the continued presence of sequelae at discharge. Although biological mechanisms have been postulated for these findings, evidence-based data are still lacking to clearly define the incidence, range of characteristics and outcomes of these manifestations, particularly in non-hospitalized patients. In addition, data from low- and middle-income countries are scarce, leading to uncertainties in the measure of neurological findings of COVID-19, with reference to geography, ethnicity, socio-cultural settings, and health care arrangements. As a consequence, at present a specific phenotype that would specify a post-COVID (or long-COVID) neurological syndrome has not yet been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2269-e2281, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One year after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to summarize the frequency of neurologic manifestations reported in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the association of these manifestations with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMBASE for studies from December 31, 2019, to December 15, 2020, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 presenting with neurologic manifestations. Risk of bias was examined with the Joanna Briggs Institute scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for neurologic manifestations. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to determine the association of neurologic manifestations with disease severity and mortality. Presence of heterogeneity was assessed with I 2, meta-regression, and subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses were conducted in R version 3.6.2. RESULTS: Of 2,455 citations, 350 studies were included in this review, providing data on 145,721 patients with COVID-19, 89% of whom were hospitalized. Forty-one neurologic manifestations (24 symptoms and 17 diagnoses) were identified. Pooled prevalence of the most common neurologic symptoms included fatigue (32%), myalgia (20%), taste impairment (21%), smell impairment (19%), and headache (13%). A low risk of bias was observed in 85% of studies; studies with higher risk of bias yielded higher prevalence estimates. Stroke was the most common neurologic diagnosis (pooled prevalence 2%). In patients with COVID-19 ≥60 years of age, the pooled prevalence of acute confusion/delirium was 34%, and the presence of any neurologic manifestations in this age group was associated with mortality (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.91). DISCUSSION: Up to one-third of patients with COVID-19 analyzed in this review experienced at least 1 neurologic manifestation. One in 50 patients experienced stroke. In those >60 years of age, more than one-third had acute confusion/delirium; the presence of neurologic manifestations in this group was associated with nearly a doubling of mortality. Results must be interpreted with the limitations of observational studies and associated bias in mind. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020181867.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/complications , Delirium/mortality , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications
11.
J Crit Care ; 66: 102-108, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prediction of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) failure in COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) may improve clinical management and stratification of patients for optimal treatment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine performance of ROX index as a predictor of HFNC failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic search was performed in electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Cochrane Library) for articles published till 15 June 2021 investigating ROX index as a predictor for HFNC failure. Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool was used to analyze risk of bias for prognostic factors, by two independent authors. RESULTS: Eight retrospective or prospective cohort studies involving 1301 patients showed a good discriminatory value, summary area under the curve (sAUC) 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.84) with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.59-0.80) and specificity of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88) for predicting HNFC failure. The positive and negative likelihood ratio were 3.0 (95% CI, 2.2-5.3) and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.28-0.50) respectively, and was strongly associated with a promising predictive accuracy (Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 9, 95% CI, 5-16). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests ROX index has good discriminating power for prediction of HFNC failure in COVID-19 patients with AHRF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 427: 117532, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine induced immune mediated thrombocytopenia or VITT, is a recent and rare phenomenon of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, frequently including cerebral venous thromboses (CVT), that has been described following vaccination with adenovirus vaccines ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2·S Johnson and Johnson (Janssen/J&J). The evaluation and management of suspected cases of CVT post COVID-19 vaccination are critical skills for a broad range of healthcare providers. METHODS: A collaborative comprehensive review of literature was conducted among a global group of expert neurologists and hematologists. FINDINGS: Strategies for rapid evaluation and treatment of the CVT in the context of possible VITT exist, including inflammatory marker measurements, PF4 assays, and non-heparin anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
13.
Natl Med J India ; 33(3): 152-157, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204310

ABSTRACT

Background: . Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has emerged as a pandemic by end-January 2020. Of the infected patients, 10%-15% may develop severe or critical illness. So far, no definite treatment is available for Covid-19. Cytokine release syndrome may underlie the pathogenesis of severe and critical disease. Anti-interleukin (IL)-6 therapies are being tried to improve clinical outcomes. Methods: . We did a systematic review to identify the available literature on anti-IL-6 therapies in the treatment of Covid-19 and used the GRADE method to assess the quality of evidence. Results: . Four case series and 10 case reports were identified. On critical assessment, we found that these studies reported some beneficial effect of anti-IL-6 therapy, but all the studies had a high risk of bias. The pooled estimate showed that 42% of patients improved but with a very wide confidence interval (CI) (95% CI 1%-91%) and substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 95%). The overall quality of evidence was graded as 'very low'. Conclusions: . Although promising, anti-IL-6 therapy for Covid-19 needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials to provide robust evidence.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Treatment Outcome
14.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(1): 11-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150828

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a global health crisis. Non-COVID diseases across specialties have been significantly compromised. The greatest challenge has been to continue providing care to non-COVID cases with minimum transmission risk to health care workers, patients, and caregivers. In this specter, better described as a medical holocaust, we present our experiences of dealing with acute neurological patients who could access our facility. We attempted to work on three key areas - initial screening using a more inclusive, dynamic checklist for COVID suspicion over and above the emergency triage, a mandatory initial holding on a separate floor of our inpatient service equipped with infection control strategies similar to a COVID-designated area, and daily screening of health care workers and caregivers for symptoms and possible exposures. It was a steep learning curve, a couple of close shaves, and many more lessons that went into the development of an algorithm that seems to be working well.

15.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 16(S6):e047721, 2020.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-959104

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is focusing all energies on the impact on survival of affected individuals, treatment and prevention, but increasingly attention is focusing on its enduring consequences. We established a global consortium to study a longitudinal representative cohort of individuals, to characterize neurological and neuropsychiatric sequalae from direct viral, immune-, vascular- or accelerated neurodegenerative injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Method We propose to characterize the neurobehavioral phenomenology associated with SARS-CoV-2 in a large, multinational, longitudinal cohort of post COVID-19 infection patients following three sampling strategies: 1) Opportunity sample of patients discharged after hospital admission for COVID-19 related symptoms. 2) A stratified random sample from COVID-19 testing registries (including asymptomatic and negative participants). 3) Ascertaining COVID-19 exposure (antibody) status in ongoing longitudinal, community-based cohort studies that are already collecting biosamples, cognitive, behavioral and neuroimaging data. We will obtain core data within 6 months of discharge or testing. Core characterization will include interviews with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), neurological exams, emotional reactivity scales and a neurocognitive assessment. Wherever feasible, we will also collect neuroimaging, biosamples and genetic data. Longitudinal follow up will be conducted at 9 and 18 months of the initial evaluation. An mHealth keeping-in-touch process will be set up to minimize attrition rates. The population cohorts provide a large, unbiased, normative and validation sample, albeit with more heterogenous outcome ascertainment. They also permit examination of pre- and post-COVID trends in symptoms and biomarkers. Since some ethnic groups, as well as in individuals with blood type A, are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and death, a role of genetics in determining susceptibility to infection and poor outcomes seems well supported. We will collect genome-wide genotypes from our cohort individuals to address the role of ancestry and genetic variation on susceptibility to neuropsychiatric sequelae. High rates of mutation in COVID-19 strongly suggest that viral infectivity, including neurotropism, may not be uniform across countries affected by the pandemic. Results Pending. Conclusion Our consortium is in a unique position to address the interaction between genetics (including ancestral DNA), and viral strain variation on CNS sequelae of SARS-CoV-2.

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