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1.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831012

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of this study is to longitudinally assess sociodemographic and psychological correlates of increased alcohol use during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) period among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Pre-COVID period is defined as the 1-year period on or before 31 March 2020, and during-COVID period is defined as the period from 1st April 2020 to 30 March 2021. Univariable logistic regression models are used to evaluate the association of demographic characteristics, Area Deprivation Index (ADI), rurality, changes in Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale severity, and the risk of increased alcohol consumption (binge drinking, number of drinks and drinking regularity) from pre-COVID to during-COVID period. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our study found that worsened anxiety symptoms, older age, being in college and current cigarette smoking status were associated with increased alcohol use among youth during the pandemic year. Socioeconomic position (measured by ADI) and rural status were not found to be associated with increased alcohol use among adolescents and young adults.

2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2528-2539, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 infection in a defined Midwestern US population overall and within different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to identify persons residing in a defined 27-county Midwestern region who had positive results on polymerase chain reaction tests for COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and September 30, 2020 (N=9928). Age, sex, race, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking status, and 44 chronic disease categories were considered as possible risk factors for severe infection. Severe infection was defined as hospitalization or death caused by COVID-19. Associations between risk factors and severe infection were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models overall and within 3 age groups (0 to 44, 45 to 64, and 65+ years). RESULTS: Overall, 474 (4.8%) persons developed severe COVID-19 infection. Older age, male sex, non-White race, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and a higher number of chronic conditions were associated with increased risk of severe infection. After adjustment, 36 chronic disease categories were significantly associated with severe infection. The risk of severe infection varied significantly across age groups. In particular, persons 0 to 44 years of age with cancer, chronic neurologic disorders, hematologic disorders, ischemic heart disease, and other endocrine disorders had a greater than 3-fold increased risk of severe infection compared with persons of the same age without those conditions. Associations were attenuated in older age groups. CONCLUSION: Older persons are more likely to experience severe infections; however, severe cases occur in younger persons as well. Our data provide insight regarding younger persons at especially high risk of severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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