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1.
Advances in Food Security and Sustainability ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734119

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has posed a severe challenge on food security by limiting access to food for the marginally placed population. While access to food is a challenge, access to nutritional food is a greater challenge to the population. The present-day foods are not sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of the human body. In a pandemic condition, providing nutritious food to the population is imperative to ensure the health and well-being of humankind. Exploiting the existing biodiversity of crop species and deploying classical and modern tools to improve the nutritional potential of these species holds the key to addressing the above challenge. Breeding has been a classical tool of crop improvement that relied predominantly on genetic diversity. Collecting and conserving diverse germplasms and characterizing their diversity using molecular markers is essential to preserve diversity and use them in genetic improvement programs. These markers are also valuable for association mapping analyses to identify the genetic determinants of traits-of-interest in crop species. Association mapping identifies the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the trait-of-interest by exploring marker-trait associations, and these QTLs can further be exploited for the genetic improvement of cultivated species through genomics-assisted breeding. Conventional breeding and genomics approaches are also being applied to develop biofortified cereal crops to reduce nutritional deficiencies in consumers. In this context, chapter explains the prerequisites for association mapping, population structure, genetic diversity, different approaches of performing association mapping to dissect nutritional traits, use the information for genomics-assisted breeding for nutrient-rich cereal crops, and application of genomics strategies in crop biofortification. These approaches will ensure food and nutrition security for all amidst the current COVID-19 crisis.

2.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(1): 33-40, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309402

ABSTRACT

Food security is an ongoing problem, and current staple foods are not sufficient to overcome challenges such as the present COVID-19 pandemic. We propose here that small millets have the potential to become new staple crops, especially in hunger hotspots. Currently, the absence of intensification of millet farming, lack of deployment of genetic tools for trait improvement, and the need for optimization of storage and supply chains limit crop production. We highlight a roadmap to strengthen small millet cultivation, such as identifying varieties suitable for particular environments and targeting trait improvement using genetic and genomic approaches. These approaches will help to combat hunger and malnutrition and also economically benefit the farmers and stakeholders involved in small millet cultivation amidst the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Millets , Food Security , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Trends Genet ; 37(10): 863-864, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294269

ABSTRACT

Good leadership is important for the efficient functioning of an organization. PhD and postdoctoral research is a mentally challenging job, and a good mentor must be able to both treat students with compassion and provide motivation. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in the decline of the mental health of a large fraction of mentees.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Mental Health , Motivation , COVID-19 , Communication , Humans , Mentors
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 370, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732897

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has already infected more than 6. 3 million people worldwide as of 1st June 2020 and caused a global medical emergency. Healthcare professionals have been struggling to devise appropriate therapeutic strategies against the virus mainly due to the diverse range of symptoms and multiple-organ failure in infected patients. Several broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are being used for treatment; however, there is yet no specific drug or vaccine against the virus. Multiple-organ failure due to hyperactivity of the immune system resulting in cytokine storms is a major reason for death among the 5% critically ill patients. In this article, we have discussed the damage caused by COVID-19 on different organs of the human body.

5.
Genomics ; 112(6): 4322-4331, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701714

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is devastative to the humankind for which neither vaccines nor precise therapeutic molecules for treatment are identified. The search for new drugs and repurposing of existing drugs are being performed; however, at the same time, research on plants to identify novel therapeutic compounds or testing the existing ones is progressing at a slower phase. In this context, genomics and biotechnology offer various tools and strategies to manipulate plants for producing those complex biopharmaceutical products. This review enumerates the scope for research on plant-based molecules for their potential application in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Strategies to edit gene and genome, overexpression and silencing approaches, and molecular breeding for producing target biomolecules in the plant system are discussed in detail. Altogether, the present review provides a roadmap for expediting research on using plants as a novel source of active biomolecules having therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Genomics/methods , Plants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gene Editing , Humans , Plants/genetics , Plants/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified
6.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(9): 1109-1114, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607291

ABSTRACT

The exponential spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emphasizes the immediate need for effective antiviral drugs and vaccines that could control and prevent the spread of this pandemic. Several new and repurposed drugs are being tested for their effectiveness in the treatment regime, and the development of vaccines is underway. The availability of genome sequence information of the virus and the identification of potential targets to neutralize and eradicate the infection have enabled the search for novel as well as existing molecules to perform the desired function. However, the application of plants in the development of potential biomolecules, such as antibiotics and vaccines, is limited. Traditional medicines involving plant-based formulations have proven successful in boosting immunity and providing tolerance to virus infections. Still, in-depth studies are not available to explore the bioactive compounds of plant origin and their mechanism of action. Given this, the current opinion article conveys our thoughts and perspectives on the promising usage of plant-based biomolecules in circumventing SARS-CoV-2, and how these molecules can work synergistically with other potential drugs for treating SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J. Genet. ; 1(99)20201201.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-141700
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