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Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S46-S48, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024851

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused a pandemic since the end of the year 2019. Controversy regarding the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in tears and conjunctival sac has created suspense throughout. Moderate to severe dry eye has been observed in the patients infected with COVID-19. Material and Method: We conducted a descriptive, prospective observational study. We enrolled 16 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria for our study. Patients affected with acute COVID-19 from 28-9-2020 to 9-10-2020 registered at our hospital and willing to participate were included. Tears and conjunctival swabs were taken at the interval of 24 h;consecutively three samples were taken from one COVID-19 infected patient. In total, 48 samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Result: We had 16 participants, 47% were females and 53% were males;2/16 [12.5%] patients showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in tears and conjunctival swabs. Both the infected patients were females, and they did not have any obvious abnormal ocular conditions. Schirmer strip reading, however, showed a severe dry eye in both the patients. Conclusion: We identified dry eye ranging from mild to moderate to severe [Schirmer 1 reading ranged from 2 to 8 mm] in all our patients admitted to the COVID-19 ward. The SARS-CoV-2 gene seems to be mutating. More work needs to be done to find the viral load in the tears and any abnormalities in the eyes accordingly. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

5.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 40(2): 112-117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954367

ABSTRACT

Background: In this COVID era, it's critical to promote nonaerosol procedures. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) is one of them, and it's particularly effective in children for lowering anxiety, enhancing dental health, and giving restorative care. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the survival rate of ART compared with conventional treatment procedures in primary dentition. Materials and Methods: The review was done in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis statement and is been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021213729). The studies included comprised clinical investigations with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the survival rate of ART and conventional restorative treatments using the same or different restorative materials to treat carious lesion. RCTs in which ART was compared with conventional treatment on patients in the age group of 6-10 years with minimum follow-up of 6 months. Studies available as open access and free full text in PubMed, DOAJ, and Google Scholar databases, and published in English Language only were included in the study. Cochrane's collaboration tool for RCTs was used for the assessment of risk of bias. Results: The survival rate of single surface and multiple surface in primary dentition treated according to the ART compared with conventional treatment was found to be similar. Conclusion: The ART approach is equally helpful in managing dental caries in children and this method may be considered a useful intervention in clinical practice to enhance the dental health of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment , Dental Caries , Child , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Survival Rate , Tooth, Deciduous
6.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(5): 286-293, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the outcomes of COVID-19 Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs) managed on an ambulatory basis to that of inpatient management. DESIGN, SETTING, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in Lucknow, India, comparing the ambulatory management with the historical cohort managed in the hospital.R RTRs with mild COVID-19 were managed by supervised home-based self-monitoring (HBSM), a strategy to manage this high-risk group on an outpatient basis during the second wave of the pandemic. The primary outcome was the clinical deterioration to a higher severity category among RTRs with mild COVID-19 managed by HBSM compared to hospitalized patients within two weeks of disease onset. RESULTS: Of the 149 RTRs with mild COVID-19, 94 (63%) and 55 (37%) were managed by HBSM and in the hospital, respectively. The proportion of RTRs who clinically deteriorated to a higher severity category (moderate or severe category) was similar among both groups (28.7% versus 27.2%, P=0.849). Among RTRs with clinical deterioration, COVID-19-related death was reported in two patients of the HBSM group and in none of the patients of the hospitalized group. Graft dysfunction was higher in the hospitalized group (7.4% versus 27.2%, P=0.002). Median time to complete clinical recovery (7 days in both groups), secondary bacterial infections (25% versus 33.3%, P=0.41), and the mean decline in EQ-5D score from baseline at six weeks (-6.6 versus-4.3, P=0.105) were found to be similar in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection ; 42(4):476-482, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1918755

ABSTRACT

Post reporting of deadly virus infecting mankind in city of Wuhan (China) major changes in socio-economic conditions have been encountered. Being reported on 31st December 2019, later named Covid-19 disease has been declared global pandemic on March 11th, 2020 by WHO. Assuming 40-60% people of entire world might get affected due to this virus, lockdown was imposed as an immediate action. This was to curtail transmission of virus through physical contact. This lockdown has shown significant impact on air pollution on a global scale which needs to be analysed for further requirements. It is a known fact that air pollution impacts human respiratory system. Hence analysis of particulate matter and air pollutants post-lockdown and pre-lockdown during Covid pandemic may yield significant results. Even though treatment and prevention of Covid-19 is a big challenge right now, role of nanotechnology should not be ignored. Since nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary and focused field, it is capable of pivoting solutions for problems posed due to this virus and could relieve the excess strained hospitals. Since Covid-19 work on a nanoscale idea of using nanotechnology may offer significant results in the biomedical field that include both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this context an attempt was made to review some of the published results related to the nature of virus and role of nano and microparticles on Covid-19 as well as to analyse particulate matter and air pollutants for a coastal, urban, industrial station in Visakhapatnam India. © 2022 - Kalpana Corporation.

8.
Vasculitis: From Diagnosis to Treatment ; : 245-262, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1888097

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses the pathophysiology and adverse effects of adenoviral vector vaccinations for SARS-CoV-2 and the importance of identifying the true epidemiology of adverse outcomes regarding promoting increased acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations. This book chapter includes all published studies relating to outcomes after adenoviral-vector vaccination. The findings described show adenoviral vector vaccines are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, typically with thrombocytopenia. This phenomenon has been termed vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). The rate of thrombotic adverse effects following vaccination remains lower than the rate of thrombosis following COVID-19 infection. At the current rate of reported severe adverse outcomes, the benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks of remaining unvaccinated regardless of the vaccine vector. © 2021 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

9.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(1):8-16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798829

ABSTRACT

COVID has drastically impacted organ donation across the world, leading to untold misery for thousands of patients who have been waiting for organs. Early rules on the use of organs from COVID positive or affected donors were stringent due to the fear of spread of disease or thrombotic complications in patients who received these organs. However much has changed in the past two years. Most of our adult population has either been infected with COVID, or has received two doses of vaccine, or both. The current variant, despite being more infective, is associated with mild disease, especially in those who have been vaccinated Our armamentarium against severe COVID has improved dramatically in the past year- we have effective vaccines, monoclonal antibodies for treatment of mild COVID in high risk patients and post exposure and antiviral prophylaxis and treatment which can substantially reduce the risk of severe COVID requiring ICU admission. The risk of transmission of COVID infection has to be balanced against the risk of patients dying with end organ disease. We will have to learn to live with COVID- this also means investigating whether organs from donors who are, or have been COVID positive can be used with acceptable risk -benefit in selected patients with end stage organ failure. This document is a summary of evidence and information regarding donor screening for SARS-CoV-2 and considerations for organ acceptance from donors with a history of COVID-19.

10.
New Zealand Medical Journal ; 135(1548):96-102, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1755997

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 vaccine mandate among early childhood education (ECE) staff highlights the important role ECE staff have in the transmission of infectious diseases. However, there are no data on general vaccine uptake for this group in New Zealand. Additionally, the importance of ECE staff vaccination as a strategy to prevent illness has been rarely promoted in the past, and recommendations for other vaccinations in this group are lacking. Here we present a section of data accessed from an ECE-sector employment survey of more than 4,000 teaching staff, which inquired into the immunisation status of respondents. The data indicated that self-reported immunisation coverage for whooping cough, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B among ECE staff was approximately 50%. Self-reported immunisation status was higher for measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox in this group. The findings highlight the need for more comprehensive vaccination policy and research in ECE settings. © NZMA.

13.
Neurology ; 96(15):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576171
14.
Neurology ; 96(15 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1407950

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to analyze stroke code timings to determine delays during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. Background: During the pandemic, multiple reports from across the world have suggested that there was a reduction in stroke-related hospitalizations. Further delays in management may have occurred on arrival to the hospital due to the increased patient burden during the pandemic. Design/Methods: All stroke codes and stroke discharges from a comprehensive stroke center in New Jersey between February to April 2020 were included in this study. They were divided into two groups-the pandemic period (3/15/2020 to 4/30/2020) and the pre-pandemic period (2/1/2020 to 3/14/2020). The stroke code timings, including the discovery of symptoms to emergency room (ER) arrival, door to stroke alert times, door to CT times, and door to needle times were compared. Results: There was a total of 183 stroke codes from the ER during this study period, with no significant difference in the number of stroke codes between the two groups. The ER arrival to tPA administration time was 65.4 (±16.5) minutes during the pandemic compared to 44.8 (±17.2) minutes in the pre-pandemic period (P-value = 0.01). Discovery of symptoms to ER arrival (P=0.01), ER arrival to stroke alert time (P=0.0021), and CT scan time (P=0.015) were delayed significantly in patients who had respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: There were significant delays in stroke code timings during the pandemic, which were attributed to both medical and in-hospital reasons. Our study highlights the impact the pandemic has had on the management of stroke. Increasing public awareness that stroke-like symptoms should not be ignored during the pandemic and maintaining a dedicated stroke team in hospitals are necessary.

15.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i467, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Asymptomatic maintenance hemodialysis patients with SARS-COV-2are missed with pre-dialysis screening without testing. The possible ideal strategy of testing each patient before each shift with RT-PCR was not feasible. We aimed to study the effectiveness of fortnightly screening with RT-PCR for SARSCoV-2 in curbing transmission. METHOD: Between July 1, 2020, and September 30, 2020, all 273 patients receiving hemodialysis were subjected to fortnightly testing for SARS-Cov-2 in the unit to detect asymptomatic patients. The cost and effectiveness of universal testing in preventing transmission were analyzed using Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) modeling assuming R0 of 2.2. RESULTS: Of 273 MHD patients, 55 (20.1%) got infected with SARS-CoV-2 over three months. Six (10.9%) were symptomatic, and 49 (89.1%) asymptomatic at the time of testing. Six (10.9%) asymptomatic patients develop symptoms later;and 43 (78.2%) remained asymptomatic. A total of 7(6.1%) HCWs also tested positive for the virus. With an assumption of R0 2.2 and isolation of symptomatic patients only, all 273 patients could have been affected by September 30, 2020;with the isolation of both symptomatic patients and those testing positive after pre-dialysis screen, only 52 (19%) infections could have been prevented. However, at the end of the study period, 218 (80%) patients remained uninfected of SARS-CoV-2. Fortnightly universal testing is cost-effective, and SIR modeling proved effective in preventing person-to-person transmission. CONCLUSION: Repeated universal testing in maintenance hemodialysis patients detected 89% of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 patients over three months and appeared to be an effective strategy to prevent person-to-person transmission in the dialysis unit.

16.
2020 Ieee International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine ; : 1995-1998, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1354394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus began in Wuhan, China, and has spread quickly throughout the world. The development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 is difficult due to many obstacles, such as the lack of knowledge of important proteins, genes, and mutations of the viral genome. In this study, we selected and utilized 852 strains of COVID-19 from major countries in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) global virus bank. The information of these strains was processed by using Nextstrain software, a program that provided a visual phylogenetic tree, transmission map, and diversity panel that explains entropy and number of mutations for each codon in the genome. The general data about the spread and evolution of COVID-19 supported the current knowledge that it began in China and spread throughout the country in an interrelated manner instead of a clear "patient zero" manner. A recent study reported that codon 614 on COVID-19 spike protein (S614) was an important codon for viral spread, specifically, a mutation from aspartic acid to glycine facilitated the spread of the virus. Therefore, we chose to geographically track this mutation during the spread of COVID-19 to investigate where it emerged and whether it can affect the spread COVID-19. Our results showed that the glycine mutation first emerged in France. Also, the transmission rates in France versus China, where the mutation was not prevalent, did reflect the hypothesized change in viral behavior.

18.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 15(2):131-133, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1332217

ABSTRACT

The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) has previously published transplant-specific guidelines with reference to COVID-19.([1]) The mortality is higher in dialysis patients with COVID-19 (12%-30%) than posttransplant COVID-19 patients (11.3%) and both are higher than the general population (<2%) in India.([2-5]) With the resumption of the kidney transplant program in various parts of India, new issues are expected to occur. There is uncertainty, regarding the safety of performing kidney,([ 6-8]) liver,([9-12]) and lunge([13]) transplantation in a recipient recently recovered from COVID-19. At present, we have limited evidence-based information about safety and feasibility of kidney transplantation from living donors, who have recovered from COVID-19.([4]) Recently, Indian Multi-center cohort studies have reported successful kidney transplantation in recipients from living donors with a previous diagnosis of COVID-19.([15, 16])

20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1560-1562, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236853

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Since the eye is in close proximity to the oro-nasal cavity, transmission of SARS CoV-2 is higher during ophthalmic surgical procedures, it is vital to ensure the safety of the healthcare team by pre-operative Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) and real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS CoV-2 viral RNA of all patients planned for elective or emergency surgery. Hence, understanding the profile of pre-operative RAT and real-time RT-PCR among patients planned for various ophthalmic procedures, will help us make better decisions for future guidelines, for optimal planning of ophthalmic elective or emergency surgeries, keeping in mind the current scenario. METHODS: This is a prospective descriptive study conducted on patients planned for elective or emergency ophthalmic surgeries, who had no COVID-19-related symptoms pre-operatively and were subjected to preoperative RAT and real-time RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal and throat swabs for SARS CoV-2 viral RNA. Data was compiled and statistically analysed. RESULTS: 204 patients underwent pre-operative RAT and RT-PCR testing; of which, 85 were females and 119 were males. Mean age of the study population was 51.44 ± 16.501 years. Among the 204, 2 tested positive for SARS CoV-2 with Rapid Antigen testing as well as RT-PCR and 10 patients tested positive via RT-PCR after a negative RAT result of the same sample. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative testing for COVID-19 disease is indispensable as there is a high chance of transmission from patient to healthcare workers. RAT has the advantage of quick results and may play a role in case of emergency procedures. However, it is prudent to perform the more sensitive real-time RT-PCR before any elective, non-emergency procedures or surgeries to avoid any undue risk to the healthcare team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , COVID-19 Testing , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2
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