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1.
Future Med Chem ; 14(10): 681-684, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753807
2.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(28): 2497-2501, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502243
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109706, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464614

ABSTRACT

The challenges and difficulties associated with conventional drug delivery systems have led to the emergence of novel, advanced targeted drug delivery systems. Therapeutic drug delivery of proteins and peptides to the lungs is complicated owing to the large size and polar characteristics of the latter. Nevertheless, the pulmonary route has attracted great interest today among formulation scientists, as it has evolved into one of the important targeted drug delivery platforms for the delivery of peptides, and related compounds effectively to the lungs, primarily for the management and treatment of chronic lung diseases. In this review, we have discussed and summarized the current scenario and recent developments in targeted delivery of proteins and peptide-based drugs to the lungs. Moreover, we have also highlighted the advantages of pulmonary drug delivery over conventional drug delivery approaches for peptide-based drugs, in terms of efficacy, retention time and other important pharmacokinetic parameters. The review also highlights the future perspectives and the impact of targeted drug delivery on peptide-based drugs in the coming decade.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lung/metabolism , Peptides/administration & dosage , Proteins/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/therapeutic use , Proteins/therapeutic use
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312959

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309180

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
7.
8.
Ther Deliv ; 12(3): 235-244, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100274

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to endanger world health and the economy. The causative SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has a unique replication system. The end point of the COVID-19 pandemic is either herd immunity or widespread availability of an effective vaccine. Multiple candidate vaccines - peptide, virus-like particle, viral vectors (replicating and nonreplicating), nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), live attenuated virus, recombinant designed proteins and inactivated virus - are presently under various stages of expansion, and a small number of vaccine candidates have progressed into clinical phases. At the time of writing, three major pharmaceutical companies, namely Pfizer and Moderna, have their vaccines under mass production and administered to the public. This review aims to investigate the most critical vaccines developed for COVID-19 to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Drug Dev Res ; 82(4): 469-473, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047152

ABSTRACT

Despite vigorous efforts, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to take a toll on the global health. The contemporary therapeutic regime focused on the viral spike proteins, viral 3CL protease enzyme, immunomodulation, inhibition of viral replication, and providing a symptomatic relief encouraged the repurposing of drugs to meet the urgency of treatment. Similarly, the representative drugs that proved beneficial to alleviate SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, HIV, ZIKV, H1N1, and malarial infection in the past presented a sturdy candidature for ameliorating the COVID-19 therapeutic doctrine. However, most of the deliberations for developing effective pharmaceuticals proved inconsequential, thereby encouraging the identification of new pathways, and novel pharmaceuticals for capping the COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19 contagion encompasses a burst release of the cytokines that increase the severity of the infection mainly due to heightened immunopathogenicity. The pro-inflammatory metabolites, COX-2, cPLA2, and 5-LOX enzymes involved in their generation, and the substrates that instigate the origination of the innate inflammatory response therefore play an important role in intensifying and worsening of the tissue morbidity related to the coronavirus infection. The deployment of representative drugs for inhibiting these overexpressed immunogenic pathways in the tissues invaded by coronaviruses has been a matter of debate since the inception of the pandemic. The effectiveness of NSAIDs such as Aspirin, Indomethacin, Diclofenac, and Celecoxib in COVID-19 coagulopathy, discouraging the SARS viral replication, the inflammasome deactivation, and synergistic inhibition of H5N1 viral infection with representative antiviral drugs respectively, have provided a silver lining in adjuvant COVID-19 therapy. Since the anti-inflammatory NSAIDs and COXIBs mainly function by reversing the COX-2 overexpression to modulate the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, these drugs present a robust treatment option for COVID-19 infection. This commentary succinctly highlights the various claims that support the status of immunomodulatory NSAIDs, and COXIBs in the adjuvant COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/physiology
10.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 8(4): 323-353, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly emerged coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, first reported in December 2019, has infected about five and a half million people globally and resulted in nearly 9063264 deaths until the 24th of June 2020. Nevertheless, the highly contagious virus has instigated an unimaginably rapid response from scientific and medical communities. OBJECTIVES: Pioneering research on molecular mechanisms underlying the viral transmission, molecular pathogenicity, and potential treatments will be highlighted in this review. The development of antiviral drugs specific to SARS-CoV-2 is a complicated and tedious process. To accelerate scientific discoveries and advancement, researchers are consolidating available data from associated coronaviruses into a single pipeline, which can be readily made available to vaccine developers. METHODS: In order to find studies evaluating the COVID-19 virus epidemiology, repurposed drugs and potential vaccines, web searches and bibliographical bases have been used with keywords that matches the content of this review. RESULTS: The published results of SARS-CoV-2 structures and interactomics have been used to identify potential therapeutic candidates. We illustrate recent publications on SARS-CoV-2, concerning its molecular, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics, and focus on innovative diagnostics technologies in the production pipeline. This objective of this review is to enhance the comprehension of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and strengthen future control measures. Lay Summary: An innovative analysis is evaluating the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim is to increase knowledge of possible viral detection methods, which highlights several new technology limitations and advantages. We have assessed some drugs currently for patients (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Anakinra and Interferon beta 1a), as the feasibility of COVID-19 specific antivirals is not presently known. The study explores the race toward vaccine development and highlights some significant trials and candidates in various clinical phases. This research addresses critical knowledge gaps by identifying repurposed drugs currently under clinical trials. Findings will be fed back rapidly to the researchers interested in COVID 19 and support the evidence and potential of possible therapeutics and small molecules with their mode of action.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
11.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110254, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753089

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious coronavirus, which had already affected more than 2 million people in 210 countries, triggered a colossal economic crisis consequently resulting from measures adopted by various goverments to limit transmission. This has placed the lives of many people infected worldwide at great risk. Currently there are no established or validated treatments for COVID-19, that is approved worldwide. Nanocarriers may offer a wide range of applications that could be developed into risk-free approaches for successful therapeutic strategies that may lead to immunisation against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) which is the primary causative organism that had led to the current COVID-19 pandemic. We address existing as well as emerging therapeutic and prophylactic approaches that may enable us to effectively combat this pandemic, and also may help to identify the key areas where nano-scientists can step in.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Carriers , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Plant Preparations , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Precision Medicine
12.
Alternative therapies in health and medicine ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-725349

ABSTRACT

No Abstract Available.

15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109125, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165367

ABSTRACT

The apparent predicament of the representative chemotherapy for managing respiratory distress calls for an obligatory deliberation for identifying the pharmaceuticals that effectively counter the contemporary intricacies associated with target disease. Multiple, complex regulatory pathways manifest chronic pulmonary disorders, which require chemotherapeutics that produce composite inhibitory effect. The cost effective natural product based molecules hold a high fervor to meet the prospects posed by current respiratory-distress therapy by sparing the tedious drug design and development archetypes, present a robust standing for the possible replacement of the fading practice of poly-pharmacology, and ensure the subversion of a potential disease relapse. This study summarizes the experimental evidences on natural products moieties and their components that illustrates therapeutic efficacy on respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology
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