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Syst Rev ; 10(1): 196, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295482


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted consistent inequities in incidence, disease severity, and mortality across racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) and beyond. While similar patterns have been observed with previous viral respiratory pathogens, to date, no systematic review has comprehensively documented these disparities or potential contributing factors. In response, this review aims to synthesize data on racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality due to viral acute respiratory infections (ARI) other than SARS-CoV-2. This review will focus on understanding structural health and social factors to contextualize race and ethnicity driving these disparities in the US. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of studies published from January 1, 2002, onward. Our search will include PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCO Host-CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles. We will include studies of any design that describe racial/ethnic disparities associated with viral ARI conducted in the US. Primary outcomes include incidence, disease severity or complication, hospitalization, or death attributed to ARI. Secondary outcomes include uptake of preventive interventions including vaccination, handwashing, social distancing, and wearing masks. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract relevant data. Data characterizing individual-, community-, and structural-level factors associated with these disparities will be abstracted to better understand the underlying structural inequities contributing to racial disparities in ARI. We will assess the methodological quality of all studies and will conduct meta-analyses using random effects models if appropriate. DISCUSSION: Findings from this systematic review will shed light on patterns of racial and ethnic disparities in viral ARI in the United States to support mathematical modeling of epidemic trajectories, intervention impact, and structural drivers of transmission, including structural racism. Moreover, data emerging from this review may reignite pandemic preparedness focused on communities with specific vulnerabilities related to living and working conditions given prevailing structural inequities, thus facilitating improved future pandemic responses to novel or endemic viral respiratory pathogens. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020219771.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24696, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123725


BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza are lipid-enveloped viruses with differential morbidity and mortality but shared modes of transmission. OBJECTIVE: With a descriptive epidemiological framing, we assessed whether recent historical patterns of regional influenza burden are reflected in the observed heterogeneity in COVID-19 cases across regions of the world. METHODS: Weekly surveillance data reported by the World Health Organization from January 2017 to December 2019 for influenza and from January 1, 2020 through October 31, 2020, for COVID-19 were used to assess seasonal and temporal trends for influenza and COVID-19 cases across the seven World Bank regions. RESULTS: In regions with more pronounced influenza seasonality, COVID-19 epidemics have largely followed trends similar to those seen for influenza from 2017 to 2019. COVID-19 epidemics in countries across Europe, Central Asia, and North America have been marked by a first peak during the spring, followed by significant reductions in COVID-19 cases in the summer months and a second wave in the fall. In Latin America and the Caribbean, COVID-19 epidemics in several countries peaked in the summer, corresponding to months with the highest influenza activity in the region. Countries from regions with less pronounced influenza activity, including South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, showed more heterogeneity in COVID-19 epidemics seen to date. However, similarities in COVID-19 and influenza trends were evident within select countries irrespective of region. CONCLUSIONS: Ecological consistency in COVID-19 trends seen to date with influenza trends suggests the potential for shared individual, structural, and environmental determinants of transmission. Using a descriptive epidemiological framework to assess shared regional trends for rapidly emerging respiratory pathogens with better studied respiratory infections may provide further insights into the differential impacts of nonpharmacologic interventions and intersections with environmental conditions. Ultimately, forecasting trends and informing interventions for novel respiratory pathogens like COVID-19 should leverage epidemiologic patterns in the relative burden of past respiratory pathogens as prior information.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans