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1.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128125

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel acquired coagulopathy characterized by a severe procoagulant imbalance is common in COVID-19 patients and is associated with the clinical severity of the disease. Aim(s): Our study aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of coagulation activation in COVID-19 patients. Method(s): Symptomatic COVID-19 patients during Milan first wave were consecutively enrolled and stratified into 3 groups based on the intensity of care: Low, requiring only high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula;intermediate, requiring continuous positive airway pressure;high, requiring mechanical ventilation. Blood samples were tested for markers of activation of the intrinsic pathway (FXIa, FXIIa) together with its physiologic inhibitor (C1-inhibitor), of the extrinsic pathway (FVIIa), of global activation of the coagulation cascade (D-dimer, FDP, FM) and of fibrinolysis (plasminogen, t-PA, alpha2-antiplasmin, PAI-1). Result(s): 111 patients were included: 26 at low, 42 intermediate and 43 high care-intensity. Median age was 59 +/- 12 (34 patients >65 years);32 patients (29%) developed a venous thrombosis and 12 (11%) died (Table). Median D-dimer, FDP and FM plasma levels were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, with a gradient of increase across the three care intensities, while all the fibrinolytic pathway parameters were in the normal range. Median plasma levels of FVIIa were lower in COVID-19 patients (27.5 mU/ml) than in controls (40.1 mU/ml) while median plasma levels of FXIIa and FXIa were higher in COVID-19 patients (11.2 and 11.3 mU/ml) than in controls (7.2 and 5.5 mU/ml), with a gradient of increase across the three care intensities. C1-inhibitor plasma levels were above the normal range in all the 3 COVID-19 patients' groups (Figure). Conclusion(s): Our study showed a prevalent activation of the contact pathway over the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade in COVID-19 patients, which is proportional to the clinical severity of the infection, opening the possibility for targeted anticoagulant therapies. (Table Presented).

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18792, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106466

ABSTRACT

The gut is of importance in the pathology of COVID-19 both as a route of infection, and gut dysfunction influencing the severity of disease. Systemic changes caused by SARS-CoV-2 gut infection include alterations in circulating levels of metabolites, nutrients and microbial products which alter immune and inflammatory responses. Circulating plasma markers for gut inflammation and damage such as zonulin, lipopolysaccharide and ß-glycan increase in plasma along with severity of disease. However, Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein / Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 (I-FABP/FABP2), a widely used biomarker for gut cell death, has paradoxically been shown to be reduced in moderate to severe COVID-19. We also found this pattern in a pilot cohort of mild (n = 18) and moderately severe (n = 19) COVID-19 patients in Milan from March to June 2020. These patients were part of the first phase of COVID-19 in Europe and were therefore all unvaccinated. After exclusion of outliers, patients with more severe vs milder disease showed reduced FABP2 levels (median [IQR]) (124 [368] vs. 274 [558] pg/mL, P < 0.01). A reduction in NMR measured plasma relative lipid-CH3 levels approached significance (median [IQR]) (0.081 [0.011] vs. 0.073 [0.024], P = 0.06). Changes in circulating lipid levels are another feature commonly observed in severe COVID-19 and a weak positive correlation was observed in the more severe group between reduced FABP2 and reduced relative lipid-CH3 and lipid-CH2 levels. FABP2 is a key regulator of enterocyte lipid import, a process which is inhibited by gut SARS-CoV-2 infection. We propose that the reduced circulating FABP2 in moderate to severe COVID-19 is a marker of infected enterocyte functional change rather than gut damage, which could also contribute to the development of hypolipidemia in patients with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Enterocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cell Death , Lipids
3.
HemaSphere ; 6:2679-2681, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032097

ABSTRACT

Background: Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) during pregnancy is a rare finding, and few is known about maternal and foetal outcomes. AIHA may either develop or relapse during gestation and postpartum or be an issue in a patient on active therapy who becomes pregnant. AIHA management during pregnancy and lactation is not standardized and drug use is often limited by safety concerns. Aims: We studied AIHA impact on pregnancy focusing on disease severity, treatment need and maternal/foetal outcome. Methods: Through a multicentric retrospective cohort study, we identified 38 pregnancies occurred in 28 women from 1997 to 2021 in 10 European centres in Italy, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, USA, and Spain. All included patients had a previous AIHA history or developed/exacerbated AIHA during gestation or postpartum. AIHA was classified according to the direct antiglobulin test. Results: We registered 18 warm AIHA (10 IgG;8 IgG+C3d), 2 cold agglutinin disease, 3 mixed and 5 atypical forms (Table 1). Evans syndrome (i.e., association of AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia or neutropenia) was present in 4. Mean age at AIHA diagnosis was 27 (3-39) and at pregnancy 32 (21-41) years. AIHA diagnosis predated pregnancy in 15 women and had required at least 1 therapy line in all of them, and >2 lines in 12 (rituximab, N=7;cytotoxic immunosuppressants, N=6;splenectomy, N=5). Among these 15 patients, 6 had a relapse during pregnancy, 3 during postpartum and 9 were on active treatment at the time of pregnancy (steroids, N=8;cyclosporine, N=1;azathioprine, N=1;the latter stopped after positive pregnancy test). A patient with a previous AIHA, relapsed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy. Further 8 patients had an AIHA onset during gestation and 2 postpartum. A patient had AIHA onset during the postpartum of the 1st pregnancy and relapsed during the 2nd one. In the 20 women experiencing AIHA during pregnancy/postpartum, median Hb and LDH levels were 6,4 g/dL (3,1 - 8,7) and 588 UI/L (269-1631), respectively. Management consisted in blood transfusions (N=10) and prompt establishment of steroid therapy+/-IVIG (N=20), all with response (complete N=13, partial N=7). After delivery, rituximab was necessary in 4 patients and cyclosporine was added in one. Anti-thrombotic prophylaxis was given in 7 patients. Overall, we registered 10 obstetric complications (10/38, 26%), including 4 early miscarriages, a premature rupture of membranes, a placental detachment, 2 preeclampsia, a postpartum infection and a biliary colic. Apart from the case of biliary colic and one of the two cases of preeclampsia, 8/10 complications occurred during active haemolysis and treatment for AIHA. Nine foetal adverse events (9/38, 24%) were reported: a transitory respiratory distress of the new-born in a mother with active AIHA, 3 cases of foetal growth restriction, a preterm birth, an infant reporting neurologic sequelae, a case of AIHA of the new-born requiring intravenous immunoglobulins, blood transfusions and plasma exchange, and 2 perinatal deaths. The latter both occurred in women on active AIHA therapy and were secondary to a massive placental detachment and a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Figure Presented ) Summary/Conclusion: AIHA developing/reactivating during pregnancy or postpartum is rare (about 5%) but mainly severe requiring steroid therapy and transfusions. Importantly, severe maternal and foetal complications may occur in up to 26% of cases mostly associated with active disease, pinpointing the importance of maintaining a high level of awareness. Passive maternal autoantibodies transfer to the foetus seems a rare event.

4.
European Journal of Neurology ; 28(SUPPL 1):292, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1307726

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Although COVID-19 infection predominantly manifests with respiratory symptoms, recent studies have also reported the occurrence of neurological involvement in the acute phase as well as in the follow-up of recovered subjects Methods: Our study focuses on assessing the prevalence of neurological sequelae in COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. Seventy-five COVID-19 recovered subjects followed a general follow-up protocol including pneumological, infectious and cardiovascular assessment 5-10 months after the onset of SARS-CoV2 infection;among them, a subset of 53 patients was evaluated through a self-administered 18-item questionnaire developed ad-hoc addressing sensory, motor and cognitive neurological symptoms. Results: Collected data has shown that 77.4% patients developed at least one neurological sequela, and 46.3% presented with more than three symptoms. Among symptomatic patients, the most prevalent manifestations were insomnia (65.9%) and daytime sleepiness (46.3%), followed by walking difficulties (31.7%). Other less frequent symptoms were headache (15.1%), hyposmia and hypogeusia (15.1%), and tremor (9.4%). Prevalence of symptoms 18-item questionnare showing the distribution of neurological manifestations Conclusion: Post-COVID-19 manifestations are reported in about 90% of recovered patients. This preliminary study suggests that neurological findings represent a significant part of such manifestations. We are currently expanding the questionnaire to a larger cohort of patients and correlating our findings with patients' demographical and clinical features, as well as with the severity of the previous SARSCoV2 infection. Currently, the same questionnaire is also being validated and administered to age-and sex-matched healthy controls who have not developed symptoms suggestive of Covid-19, and a cohort of non-COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

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