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1.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 47(1): 111-116, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low testosterone (mainly total testosterone [TTe]) has been noted in patients with COVID-19. Calculated free testosterone (FTe) and bioavailable testosterone (BavTe) may reflect more accurately this hormone's levels. In this study, we sought to assess TTe, FTe as well as BavTe in male patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera were collected upon admission from 65 men (10 in the intensive care units [ICU] and 55 in the wards) with polymerase chain reaction - proven COVID-19. A group of age-matched COVID-19-negative men (N.=29) hospitalized in general medical wards served as controls. Age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and 28-day mortality were noted. Measurements included TTe, sex-hormone binding globulin, albumin (the latter two for calculating FTe and BavTe) and laboratory markers of inflammation (white blood cell count [WBC], D-Dimers [D-D], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], ferritin [Fer] and C-reactive protein [CRP]). RESULTS: Profoundly low TTe, FTe and BavTe were noted in most patients, and were associated with disease severity/outcome (being the lowest in COVID-19 patients in the ICU and overall being lower in non-survivors; analysis of covariance P<0.05). Pearson's correlations for logTe, logFTe or logBavTe versus WBC, D-D, LDH, Ferr or CRP were negative, ranging from -0.403 to -0.293 (P=0.009 to 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: TTe, FTe and BavTe are prone to be low in patients with COVID-19, are negatively associated with disease severity and may be considered to have prognostic value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testosterone , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438752

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 has proven to be highly effective, but there is a paucity of data regarding immunogenicity factors and comparison between response to vaccination and natural infection. This study included 871 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW) and 181 patients with natural infection. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 against the RBD domain of the spike protein (anti-RBD). Samples were collected 1-2 weeks after vaccination or 15-59 days post-onset of symptoms. Post-vaccine anti-RBD concentrations were associated with age, gender, vaccination side-effects (VSE) and prior infection (Pr-CoV). Anti-RBD median levels (95%CI) were lower by 2466 (651-5583), 6228 (3254-9203) and 7651 (4479-10,823) AU/mL in 35-44, 45-54, 55-70 yrs, respectively, compared with the 18-34 yrs group. In females, the median levels were higher by 2823 (859-4787), 5024 (3122-6926) in individuals with VSE, and 9971 (5158-14,783) AU/mL in HCWs with Pr-CoV. The ratio of anti-RBD in vaccinated individuals versus those with natural infection varied from 1.0 to 19.4. The high immunogenicity of BNT162b2 is verified, although its sustainability has yet to be elucidated. The use of comparative data from natural infection serological panels, expressing the clinical heterogeneity of natural infection, may facilitate early decisions for candidate vaccines to be evaluated in clinical trials.

3.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 47(1): 111-116, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low testosterone (mainly total testosterone [TTe]) has been noted in patients with COVID-19. Calculated free testosterone (FTe) and bioavailable testosterone (BavTe) may reflect more accurately this hormone's levels. In this study, we sought to assess TTe, FTe as well as BavTe in male patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera were collected upon admission from 65 men (10 in the intensive care units [ICU] and 55 in the wards) with polymerase chain reaction - proven COVID-19. A group of age-matched COVID-19-negative men (N.=29) hospitalized in general medical wards served as controls. Age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and 28-day mortality were noted. Measurements included TTe, sex-hormone binding globulin, albumin (the latter two for calculating FTe and BavTe) and laboratory markers of inflammation (white blood cell count [WBC], D-Dimers [D-D], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], ferritin [Fer] and C-reactive protein [CRP]). RESULTS: Profoundly low TTe, FTe and BavTe were noted in most patients, and were associated with disease severity/outcome (being the lowest in COVID-19 patients in the ICU and overall being lower in non-survivors; analysis of covariance P<0.05). Pearson's correlations for logTe, logFTe or logBavTe versus WBC, D-D, LDH, Ferr or CRP were negative, ranging from -0.403 to -0.293 (P=0.009 to 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: TTe, FTe and BavTe are prone to be low in patients with COVID-19, are negatively associated with disease severity and may be considered to have prognostic value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testosterone , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male
4.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323319

ABSTRACT

A damaged endothelium is an underlying condition of the many complications of COVID-19 patients. The increased mortality risk associated with diseases that have underlying endothelial dysfunction, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), suggests that endothelial (e) nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-derived nitric oxide could be an important defense mechanism. Additionally, intravenous recombinant angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was recently reported as an effective therapy in severe COVID-19, by blocking viral entry, and thus reducing lung injury. Very few studies exist on the prognostic value of endothelium-related protective molecules in severe COVID-19 disease. To this end, serum levels of eNOS, inducible (i) NOS, adrenomedullin (ADM), soluble (s) ACE2 levels, and serum (s) ACE activity were measured on hospital admission in 89 COVID-19 patients, hospitalized either in a ward or ICU, of whom 68 had ARDS, while 21 did not. In our cohort, the COVID-19-ARDS patients had considerably lower eNOS levels compared to the COVID-19 non-ARDS patients. On the other hand, sACE2 was significantly higher in the ARDS patients. iNOS, ADM and sACE activity did not differ. Our results might support the notion of two distinct defense mechanisms in COVID-19-derived ARDS; eNOS-derived nitric oxide could be one of them, while the dramatic rise in sACE2 may also represent an endogenous mechanism involved in severe COVID-19 complications, such as ARDS. These results could provide insight to therapeutical applications in COVID-19.

5.
Endocr Connect ; 10(6): 646-655, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Following the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic, reports pointed on a high prevalence of thyroiditis-related thyrotoxicosis. Interpretation of thyroid tests during illness, however, is hampered by changes occurring in the context of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In order to elucidate these findings, we studied thyroid function in carefully selected cohorts of COVID-19 positive and negative patients. DESIGN: Cohort observational study. METHODS: We measured TSH, FT4, T3 within 24 h of admission in 196 patients without thyroid disease and/or confounding medications. In this study, 102 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive; 41 admitted in the ICU, 46 in the ward and 15 outpatients. Controls consisted of 94 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; 39 in the ICU and 55 in the ward. We designated the thyroid hormone patterns as consistent with NTIS, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. RESULTS: A NTIS pattern was encountered in 60% of ICU and 36% of ward patients, with similar frequencies between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients (46.0% vs 46.8%, P = NS). A thyrotoxicosis pattern was observed in 14.6% SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients vs 7.7% in ICU negative (P = NS) and, overall in 8.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive vs 7.4% of negative patients. In these patients, thyroglobulin levels were similar to those with normal thyroid function or NTIS. The hypothyroidism pattern was rare. CONCLUSIONS: NTIS pattern is common and relates to the severity of disease rather than SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thyrotoxicosis pattern is less frequently observed with similar frequency between patients with and without COVID-19. It is suggested that thyroid hormone monitoring in COVID-19 should not differ from other critically ill patients.

6.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282528

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the antibody responses of 564 hospital workers in Athens, Greece, after vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty®; BioNTech and Pfizer) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. A greater antibody increase was observed in women, younger age groups, previously infected individuals and personnel working in COVID-19 clinics. Notably, individuals with a prior COVID-19 infection mounted a significantly higher antibody titer following the first dose than the rest of the population; the same was true for those working in COVID-19 clinics, even without history of previous infection.

7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028880

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Critically and non-critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Covid-19) may present with higher-than-expected glycemia, even in the absence of diabetes. With this study we aimed to assess glucose, glycemic gap (GlyG) and insulin secretion/sensitivity measures in patients with Covid-19. Materials and Methods: We studied, upon admission, 157 patients with Covid-19 (84: in wards and 73: in intensive care units; ICU); 135 had no history of diabetes. We measured blood glucose upon admission as well as glycated hemoglobin (A1c), plasma insulin and C-peptide. We calculated the GlyG and the Homeostasis Model Assessment 2 (HOMA2) estimates of steady state beta cell function (HOMA2%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S). Statistical assessment was done with analysis or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Compared to patients in the wards without diabetes, patients with diabetes in the wards, as well as patients in the ICU (without or with diabetes) had higher admission glycemia. The GlyG was significantly higher in patients without diabetes in the ICU compared to patients without diabetes in the wards, while HOMA2%B based on glucose and insulin was significantly higher in the ICU patients compared to patients in the wards. Of all the parameters, HOMA2%S based on C-peptide/glucose was higher in survivors (n = 133). Conclusions: In our series of patients with Covid-19, a substantial number of patients with and without diabetes had admission hyperglycemia and those who were critically ill may have had compromised insulin secretion and lowered sensitivity to insulin. These findings lend credence to reports of association between Covid-19 and hyperglycemia/secondary diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Peptide/blood , COVID-19/blood , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004438

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Greece is a country with limited spread of SARS-CoV-2 and cumulative infection attack rate of 0.12% (95% CI 0.06-0.26). Health care workers (HCWs) are a well-recognized risk group for COVID-19. The study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a nosocomial setting and assess potential risk factors. METHODS: HCWs from two hospitals participated in the study. Hospital-1 was a tertiary university affiliated center, involved in the care of COVID-19 patients while hospital-2 was a tertiary specialized cardiac surgery center not involved in the care of these patients. A validated, CE, rapid, IgM/IgG antibody point-of-care test was used. Comparative performance with a reference globally available assay was assessed. RESULTS: 1,495 individuals consented to participate (response rate 77%). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 weighted prevalence was 1.26% (95% CI 0.43, 3.26) overall and 0.53% (95% CI 0.06, 2.78) and 2.70% (95% CI 0.57, 9.19) in hospital-1 and hospital-2, respectively although the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences. The overall, hospital-1, and hospital-2 seroprevalence was 10, 4 and 22 times higher than the estimated infection attack rate in general population, respectively. Suboptimal use of personal protective equipment was noted in both hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: These data have implications for the preparedness of a second wave of COVID-19 epidemic, given the low burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection rate, in concordance with national projections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969813

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine whether low intensive care unit (ICU) admission 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with worse outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a prospective observational study of SARS-CoV2 positive critically ill patients treated in a multidisciplinary ICU. Thirty (30) Greek patients were included, in whom 25(OH)D was measured on ICU admission. Eighty (80%) percent of patients had vitamin D deficiency, and the remaining insufficiency. Based on 25(OH)D levels, patients were stratified in two groups: higher and lower than the median value of the cohort (15.2 ng/mL). The two groups did not differ in their demographic or clinical characteristics. All patients who died within 28 days belonged to the low vitamin D group. Survival analysis showed that the low vitamin D group had a higher 28-day survival absence probability (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Critically ill COVID-19 patients who died in the ICU within 28 days appeared to have lower ICU admission 25(OH)D levels compared to survivors. When the cohort was divided at the median 25(OH)D value, the low vitamin D group had an increased risk of 28-day mortality. It seems plausible, therefore, that low 25(OH)D levels may predispose COVID-19 patients to an increased 28-day mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D/blood
11.
In Vivo ; 34(5): 3029-3032, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Reports indicate that coronaviridae may inhibit insulin secretion. In this report we aimed to describe the course of glycemia in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 36 SARS-CoV-2 patients (with no history of diabetes) in one intensive care unit (ICU). All the patients were admitted for hypoxemic respiratory failure; all but four required mechanical ventilation. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 64.7 (9.7) years; 27 were men; the mean (±SD) duration of ICU stay was 12.9 (8.3 days). RESULTS: Twenty of 36 patients presented with hyperglycemia; brief intravenous infusions of short-acting insulin were administered in six patients. As of May 29 2020, 11 patients had died (seven with hyperglycemia). In 17 patients the Hyperglycemia Index [HGI; defined as the area under the curve of (hyper)glycemia level*time (h) divided by the total time in the ICU] was <16.21 mg/dl (0.90 mmol/l), whereas in three patients the HGI was ≥16.21 mg/dl (0.90 mol/l) and <32.25 mg/dl (1.79 mmol/l). CONCLUSION: In our series of ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and no history of diabetes, a substantial number of patients had hyperglycemia, to a higher degree than would be expected by the stress of critical illness, lending credence to reports that speculated a tentative association between SARS-CoV-2 and hyperglycemia. This finding is important, since hyperglycemia can lead to further infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Insulin/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
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