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Pol Arch Intern Med ; 2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275139


INTRODUCTION: We aimed to analyze the influence of cardiovascular risk factors, established cardiovascular diseases and its treatment with cardiovascular drugs on short term and long term survival in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of patients hospitalized in thirteen COVID - 19 hospitals in Poland (between March 2020 and October 2020). Individual deaths were recorded during follow-up until March 2021. RESULTS: Overall 2346 COVID-19 patients were included (mean age 61 years, 50.2% women). 341 patients (14.5%) died during hospitalization and 95 (4.7%) died during follow-up. Independent predictors for in-hospital death were: older age, history of established cardiovascular disease, heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), while treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers and statins were related with lower risk of death during hospitalization. The independent predictors of death during follow-up were older age, history of established cardiovascular disease, CKD and history of cancer. Presence of cardiovascular risk factors did not increase odds of death either in hospital or during follow-up. Of note, higher systolic blood pressure and oxygen blood saturation on admission were assessed with better short and long term prognosis. CONCLUSION: Established cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease are the main predictors of mortality during hospitalization and during follow-up in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, while the use of cardiovascular drugs during hospitalization is associated with better prognosis. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors did not increase odds of in-hospital and follow-up death.

Blood Press ; 32(1): 2161998, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212397


PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the subsequent lockdown profoundly affected almost all aspects of daily life including health services worldwide. The established risk factors for increased blood pressure (BP) and hypertension may also demonstrate significant changes during the pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on BP control and BP phenotypes as assessed with 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multi-centre, observational, retrospective and comparative study involving Excellence Centres of the European Society of Hypertension across Europe. Along with clinical data and office BP, ABPM recordings will be collected in adult patients with treated arterial hypertension. There will be two groups in the study: Group 1 will consist of participants who have undergone two ABPM recordings - the second one occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e. after March 2020, and the first one 9-15 months prior to the second. Participants in Group 2 will have two repeated ABPM recordings - both performed before the pandemic within a similar 9-15 month interval between the recordings. Within each group, we will analyse and compare BP variables and phenotypes (including averaged daytime and night-time BP, BP variability, dipper and non-dipper status, white-coat and masked hypertension) between the two respective ABPM recordings and compare these changes between the two groups. The target sample size will amount to least 590 participants in each of the study groups, which means a total of at least 2360 ABPM recordings overall. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: As a result, we expect to identify the impact of a COVID-19 pandemic on blood pressure control and the quality of medical care in order to develop the strategy to control cardiovascular risk factors during unpredictable global events.

What is the context?A wide range of daily activities, including health care worldwide, were deeply affected by the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown.What is new?Our multicenter study will examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients across Europe by analysing results of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.What is the impact?Optimising strategies for dealing with future unpredictable global situations will depend on understanding how the pandemic affected blood pressure control.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology
Hypertension ; 79(11): 2601-2610, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020594


BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases including arterial hypertension are common comorbidities among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We assessed the influence of preexisting hypertension and its pharmacological treatment on in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We studied all consecutive patients who were admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021. Data of 5191 patients (mean age 61.9±16.7 years, 45.2% female) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median hospitalization time was 14 days, and the mortality rate was 18.4%. About a quarter of patients had an established cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (16.6%) or stroke (7.6%). Patients with hypertension (58.3%) were older and had more comorbidities than patients without hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age above median (64 years), male gender, history of heart failure or chronic kidney disease, and higher C-reactive protein level, but not preexisting hypertension, were independent risk factors for in-hospital death in the whole study group. Patients with hypertension already treated (n=1723) with any first-line antihypertensive drug (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics) had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.2-0.3]; P<0.001) compared to nontreated hypertensives (n=1305). CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnosis of preexisting hypertension per se had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19, treatment with any first-line blood pressure-lowering drug had a profound beneficial effect on survival in patients with hypertension. These data support the need for antihypertensive pharmacological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/chemically induced , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization
Hypertension ; 79(2): 325-334, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476907


In a cross-sectional analysis of a case-control study in 2015, we revealed the association between increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and aircraft noise exposure. In June 2020, we evaluated the long-term effects, and the impact of a sudden decline in noise exposure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown, on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity, comparing 74 participants exposed to long-term day-evening-night aircraft noise level >60 dB and 75 unexposed individuals. During the 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of hypertension increased in the exposed (42% versus 59%, P=0.048) but not in the unexposed group. The decline in noise exposure since April 2020 was accompanied with a significant decrease of noise annoyance, 24-hour systolic (121.2 versus 117.9 mm Hg; P=0.034) and diastolic (75.1 versus 72.0 mm Hg; P=0.003) blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (10.2 versus 8.8 m/s; P=0.001) in the exposed group. Less profound decreases of these parameters were noticed in the unexposed group. Significant between group differences were observed for declines in office and night-time diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Importantly, the difference in the reduction of pulse wave velocity between exposed and unexposed participants remained significant after adjustment for covariates (-1.49 versus -0.35 m/s; P=0.017). The observed difference in insomnia prevalence between exposed and unexposed individuals at baseline was no more significant at follow-up. Thus, long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the prevalence of hypertension and accelerate arterial stiffening. However, even short-term noise reduction, as experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown, may reverse those unfavorable effects.

Aircraft , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Noise/adverse effects , Quarantine , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Urban Health
J Hypertens ; 39(6): 1077-1089, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219489


SUMMARY: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic considerably affects health, wellbeing, social, economic and other aspects of daily life. The impact of COVID-19 on blood pressure (BP) control and hypertension remains insufficiently explored. We therefore provide a comprehensive review of the potential changes in lifestyle factors and behaviours as well as environmental changes likely to influence BP control and cardiovascular risk during the pandemic. This includes the impact on physical activity, dietary patterns, alcohol consumption and the resulting consequences, for example increases in body weight. Other risk factors for increases in BP and cardiovascular risk such as smoking, emotional/psychologic stress, changes in sleep patterns and diurnal rhythms may also exhibit significant changes in addition to novel factors such as air pollution and environmental noise. We also highlight potential preventive measures to improve BP control because hypertension is the leading preventable risk factor for worldwide health during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Hypertension/epidemiology , Life Style , Stress, Psychological , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking , Socioeconomic Factors
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(10): 1688-1699, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889504


Systemic arterial hypertension (referred to as hypertension herein) is a major risk factor of mortality worldwide, and its importance is further emphasized in the context of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection referred to as COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections commonly are older and have a history of hypertension. Almost 75% of patients who have died in the pandemic in Italy had hypertension. This raised multiple questions regarding a more severe course of COVID-19 in relation to hypertension itself as well as its treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, e.g. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). We provide a critical review on the relationship of hypertension, RAS, and risk of lung injury. We demonstrate lack of sound evidence that hypertension per se is an independent risk factor for COVID-19. Interestingly, ACEIs and ARBs may be associated with lower incidence and/or improved outcome in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. We also review in detail the molecular mechanisms linking the RAS to lung damage and the potential clinical impact of treatment with RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19 and a high cardiovascular and renal risk. This is related to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, and expression of ACE2 in the lung, cardiovascular system, kidney, and other tissues. In summary, a critical review of available evidence does not support a deleterious effect of RAS blockers in COVID-19 infections. Therefore, there is currently no reason to discontinue RAS blockers in stable patients facing the COVID-19 pandemic.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lung Injury/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung Injury/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2