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1.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
2.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290851

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111182, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258012

ABSTRACT

Importance: Information on underlying conditions and severe COVID-19 illness among children is limited. Objective: To examine the risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included patients aged 18 years and younger with International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code U07.1 (COVID-19) or B97.29 (other coronavirus) during an emergency department or inpatient encounter from March 2020 through January 2021. Data were collected from the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, which included data from more than 800 US hospitals. Multivariable generalized linear models, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, were used to estimate adjusted risk of severe COVID-19 illness associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Exposures: Underlying medical conditions and medical complexity (ie, presence of complex or noncomplex chronic disease). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospitalization and severe illness when hospitalized (ie, combined outcome of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death). Results: Among 43 465 patients with COVID-19 aged 18 years or younger, the median (interquartile range) age was 12 (4-16) years, 22 943 (52.8%) were female patients, and 12 491 (28.7%) had underlying medical conditions. The most common diagnosed conditions were asthma (4416 [10.2%]), neurodevelopmental disorders (1690 [3.9%]), anxiety and fear-related disorders (1374 [3.2%]), depressive disorders (1209 [2.8%]), and obesity (1071 [2.5%]). The strongest risk factors for hospitalization were type 1 diabetes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 4.60; 95% CI, 3.91-5.42) and obesity (aRR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.66-3.54), and the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness were type 1 diabetes (aRR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76) and cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies (aRR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.48-1.99). Prematurity was a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness among children younger than 2 years (aRR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.47-2.29). Chronic and complex chronic disease were risk factors for hospitalization, with aRRs of 2.91 (95% CI, 2.63-3.23) and 7.86 (95% CI, 6.91-8.95), respectively, as well as for severe COVID-19 illness, with aRRs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.69-2.26) and 2.86 (95% CI, 2.47-3.32), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children with medical complexity and certain underlying conditions, such as type 1 diabetes, cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies, and obesity. Health care practitioners could consider the potential need for close observation and cautious clinical management of children with these conditions and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Abnormalities/epidemiology , Child Health , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Premature Birth , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa638, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults and people from certain racial and ethnic groups are disproportionately represented in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and deaths. METHODS: Using data from the Premier Healthcare Database on 181 813 hospitalized adults diagnosed with COVID-19 during March-September 2020, we applied multivariable log-binomial regression to assess the associations between age and race/ethnicity and COVID-19 clinical severity (intensive care unit [ICU] admission, invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], and death) and to determine whether the impact of age on clinical severity differs by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Overall, 84 497 (47%) patients were admitted to the ICU, 29 078 (16%) received IMV, and 27 864 (15%) died in the hospital. Increased age was strongly associated with clinical severity when controlling for underlying medical conditions and other covariates; the strength of this association differed by race/ethnicity. Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, risk of death was lower among non-Hispanic Black patients (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) and higher among Hispanic/Latino patients (risk ratio [RR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), non-Hispanic Asian patients (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23), and patients of other racial and ethnic groups (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21). Risk of ICU admission and risk of IMV were elevated among some racial and ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that age is a driver of poor outcomes among hospitalized persons with COVID-19. Additionally, clinical severity may be elevated among patients of some racial and ethnic minority groups. Public health strategies to reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rates among older adults and racial and ethnic minorities are essential to reduce poor outcomes.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1695-1699, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922986

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a complex clinical illness with potential complications that might require ongoing clinical care (1-3). Few studies have investigated discharge patterns and hospital readmissions among large groups of patients after an initial COVID-19 hospitalization (4-7). Using electronic health record and administrative data from the Premier Healthcare Database,* CDC assessed patterns of hospital discharge, readmission, and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with hospital readmission after a patient's initial COVID-19 hospitalization (index hospitalization). Among 126,137 unique patients with an index COVID-19 admission during March-July 2020, 15% died during the index hospitalization. Among the 106,543 (85%) surviving patients, 9% (9,504) were readmitted to the same hospital within 2 months of discharge through August 2020. More than a single readmission occurred among 1.6% of patients discharged after the index hospitalization. Readmissions occurred more often among patients discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) (15%) or those needing home health care (12%) than among patients discharged to home or self-care (7%). The odds of hospital readmission increased with age among persons aged ≥65 years, presence of certain chronic conditions, hospitalization within the 3 months preceding the index hospitalization, and if discharge from the index hospitalization was to a SNF or to home with health care assistance. These results support recent analyses that found chronic conditions to be significantly associated with hospital readmission (6,7) and could be explained by the complications of underlying conditions in the presence of COVID-19 (8), COVID-19 sequelae (3), or indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (9). Understanding the frequency of, and risk factors for, readmission can inform clinical practice, discharge disposition decisions, and public health priorities such as health care planning to ensure availability of resources needed for acute and follow-up care of COVID-19 patients. With the recent increases in cases nationwide, hospital planning can account for these increasing numbers along with the potential for at least 9% of patients to be readmitted, requiring additional beds and resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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