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2.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 1-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800370

ABSTRACT

Rates of survival with functional recovery for both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are notably low. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is emerging as a modality to improve prognosis by augmenting perfusion to vital end-organs by utilizing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during conventional CPR and stabilizing the patient for interventions aimed at reversing the aetiology of the arrest. Implementing this emergent procedure requires a substantial investment in resources, and even the most successful ECPR programs may nonetheless burden healthcare systems, clinicians, patients, and their families with unsalvageable patients supported by extracorporeal devices. Non-randomized and observational studies have repeatedly shown an association between ECPR and improved survival, versus conventional CPR, for in-hospital cardiac arrest in select patient populations. Recently, randomized controlled trials suggest benefit for ECPR over standard resuscitation, as well as the feasibility of performing such trials, in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest within highly coordinated healthcare delivery systems. Application of these data to clinical practice should be done cautiously, with outcomes likely to vary by the setting and system within which ECPR is initiated. ECPR introduces important ethical challenges, including whether it should be considered an extension of CPR, at what point it becomes sustained organ replacement therapy, and how to approach patients unable to recover or be bridged to heart replacement therapy. The economic impact of ECPR varies by health system, and has the potential to outstrip resources if used indiscriminately. Ideally, studies should include economic evaluations to inform health care systems about the cost-benefits of this therapy.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy
5.
J Eur CME ; 10(1): 2014039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574323

ABSTRACT

The mission statement of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is "to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease". The ESC is the leading scientific society for cardiovascular health care professionals across Europe and increasingly the world. Recognising the need for democratisation of education in cardiology, the ESC has for many years embraced the digital world within its education programme. As in all areas of medicine, the COVID-19 pandemic required an agile response to be able to continue to provide not only a digital congress but also education, training and assessment in an almost totally digital world. In this paper we will describe the digital learning activities of the ESC, the successes and the challenges of the transformation that has taken place in the last 18 months as well as an overview of the vision for education, training and assessment in the post-COVID digital era. We understand the need to provide a portfolio of educational styles to suit a diverse range of learners. It is clear that digital CME provides opportunities but it is likely that it will not entirely replace in-person learning. In planning for the future, we regard the provision of digital CME as central to fulfiling our mission.

7.
J Eur CME ; 10(1): 1984076, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462230

ABSTRACT

The GAME 2019 #FuturistForum involved an exchange of ideas and perspectives on the future of learning in healthcare and necessary evolutions to sustain future health systems. This event allowed for reflection and discourse around a) what medical learning or learning in healthcare may look like 10-15 years from now, b) how technology would impact that evolution, and c) what collaborative roles distinct stakeholders would play. Seventy-five (75) key stakeholders, experts from various fields, participated in the two-day event. Four multifaceted themes were uncovered from the qualitative analysis, which are: learning will be lifelong and outcome-based, the health system will follow a preventive care model, technology will be an enabler of evolution in education and health systems, and that multi-level collaboration will support and sustain future progress. Future implications, exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and study limitations are described.

8.
Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine (Second Edition) ; : 746-762, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1414404

ABSTRACT

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is major clinical problem in respiratory medicine carrying a high mortality and morbidity burden. This review summarizes the diagnosis and pathophysiology behind pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction in ARDS as well as current recommended treatment approaches.

9.
ASAIO J ; 67(9): 982-988, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393493

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high risk of death. The efficacy of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) for COVID-19 on longer-term outcomes, unlike in other viral pneumonias, is unknown. In this study, we aimed to compare the 6 month mortality of patients receiving VV-ECMO support for COVID-19 with a historical viral ARDS cohort. Fifty-three consecutive patients with COVID-19 ARDS admitted for VV-ECMO to the Royal Brompton Hospital between March 17, 2020 and May 30, 2020 were identified. Mortality, patient characteristics, complications, and ECMO parameters were then compared to a historical cohort of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia. At 6 months survival was significantly higher in the COVID-19 than in the non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort (84.9% vs. 66.0%, p = 0.040). Patients with COVID-19 had an increased Murray score (3.50 vs. 3.25, p = 0.005), a decreased burden of organ dysfunction (sequential organ failure score score [8.76 vs. 10.42, p = 0.004]), an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (69.8% vs. 24.5%, p < 0.001) and in those who survived to decannulation longer ECMO runs (19 vs. 11 days, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that survival in patients supported with EMCO for COVID-19 are at least as good as those treated for non-COVID-19 viral ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(8): 960-962, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376290
11.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(5): e200428, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of dual energy computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (DECTPA) in revealing vasculopathy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between DECTPA and disease duration, right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), lung compliance, D-dimer and obstruction index in COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and waived the informed consent requirement. Between March-May 2020, 27 consecutive ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia underwent DECTPA to diagnose pulmonary thrombus (PT); 11 underwent surveillance DECTPA 14 ±11.6 days later. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of perfused blood volume (PBV) maps recorded: i) perfusion defect 'pattern' (wedge-shaped, mottled or amorphous), ii) presence of PT and CT obstruction index (CTOI) and iii) PBV relative to pulmonary artery enhancement (PBV/PAenh); PBV/PAenh was also compared with seven healthy volunteers and correlated with D-Dimer and CTOI. RESULTS: Amorphous (n=21), mottled (n=4), and wedge-shaped (n=2) perfusion defects were observed (M=20; mean age=56 ±8.7 years). Mean extent of perfusion defects=36.1%±17.2. Acute PT was present in 11/27(40.7%) patients. Only wedge-shaped defects corresponded with PT (2/27, 7.4%). Mean CTOI was 2.6±5.4 out of 40. PBV/PAenh (18.2 ±4.2%) was lower than in healthy volunteers (27 ±13.9%, p = 0.002). PBV/PAenh correlated with disease duration (ß = 0.13, p = 0.04), and inversely correlated with RVD (ß = -7.2, p = 0.001), persisting after controlling for confounders. There were no linkages between PBV/PAenh and D-dimer or CTOI. CONCLUSION: Perfusion defects and decreased PBV/PAenh are prevalent in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. PBV/PAenh correlates with disease duration and inversely correlates with RVD. PBV/PAenh may be an important marker of vasculopathy in severe COVID-19 pneumonia even in the absence of arterial thrombus.

13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(3): 595-607, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082169

ABSTRACT

A prothrombotic state is reported with severe COVID-19 infection, which can manifest in venous and arterial thrombotic events. Coagulopathy is reflective of more severe disease and anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis is recommended in hospitalized patients. However, the prevalence of thrombosis on the intensive care unit (ICU) remains unclear, including whether this is sufficiently addressed by conventional anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. We aimed to identify the rate of thrombotic complications in ICU-treated patients with COVID-19, to inform recommendations for diagnosis and management. A systematic review was conducted to assess the incidence of thrombotic complications in ICU-treated patients with COVID-19. Observational studies and registries reporting thrombotic complications in ICU-treated patients were included. Information extracted included patient demographics, use of thromboprophylaxis or anticoagulation, method of identifying thrombotic complications, and reported patient outcomes. In 28 studies including 2928 patients, thrombotic complications occurred in 34% of ICU-managed patients, with deep venous thrombosis reported in 16.1% and pulmonary embolism in 12.6% of patients, despite anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis, and were associated with high mortality. Studies adopting systematic screening for venous thrombosis with Duplex ultrasound reported a significantly higher incidence of venous thrombosis compared to those relying on clinical suspicion (56.3% vs. 11.0%, p < 0.001). Despite thromboprophylaxis, there is a very high incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19 on the ICU. Systematic screening identifies many thrombotic complications that would be missed by relying on clinical suspicion and should be employed, with consideration given to increased dose anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis, whilst awaiting results of prospective trials of anticoagulation in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thrombosis/prevention & control
14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(5): 804-815, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with an extensive pneumonitis and frequent coagulopathy. We sought the true prevalence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 on the ICU, with or without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: We undertook a single-center, retrospective analysis of 72 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to ICU. CT angiography of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were performed at admission as per routine institution protocols, with further imaging as clinically indicated. The prevalence of thrombotic complications and the relationship with coagulation parameters, other biomarkers, and survival were evaluated. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019 ICUs at a specialist cardiorespiratory center. PATIENTS: Seventy-two consecutive patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to ICU during the study period (March 19, 2020, to June 23, 2020). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All but one patient received thromboprophylaxis or therapeutic anticoagulation. Among 72 patients (male:female = 74%; mean age: 52 ± 10; 35 on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), there were 54 thrombotic complications in 42 patients (58%), comprising 34 pulmonary arterial (47%), 15 peripheral venous (21%), and five (7%) systemic arterial thromboses/end-organ embolic complications. In those with pulmonary arterial thromboses, 93% were identified incidentally on first screening CT with only 7% suspected clinically. Biomarkers of coagulation (e.g., d-dimer, fibrinogen level, and activated partial thromboplastin time) or inflammation (WBC count, C-reactive protein) did not discriminate between patients with or without thrombotic complications. Fifty-one patients (76%) survived to discharge; 17 (24%) patients died. Mortality was significantly greater in patients with detectable thrombus (33% vs 10%; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of thrombotic complications, mainly pulmonary, among coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICU, despite anticoagulation. Detection of thrombus was usually incidental, not predicted by coagulation or inflammatory biomarkers, and associated with increased risk of death. Systematic CT imaging at admission should be considered in all coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1839-1851, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260376

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare worldwide. The infection can be life threatening and require intensive care treatment. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. The number of patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care may overwhelm health systems and negatively affect standard care for patients presenting with conditions needing emergency interventions. This position statements aims to assist cardiologists in the invasive management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, we assembled a panel of interventional cardiologists and acute cardiac care specialists appointed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and from the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC) and included the experience from the first and worst affected areas in Europe. Modified diagnostic and treatment algorithms are proposed to adapt evidence-based protocols for this unprecedented challenge. Various clinical scenarios, as well as management algorithms for patients with a diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 infection, presenting with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation ACS are described. In addition, we address the need for re-organization of ACS networks, with redistribution of hub and spoke hospitals, as well as for in-hospital reorganization of emergency rooms and cardiac units, with examples coming from multiple European countries. Furthermore, we provide a guidance to reorganization of catheterization laboratories and, importantly, measures for protection of healthcare providers involved with invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology
16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 702, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992527

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused great devastation in the past year. Multi-organ point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) including lung ultrasound (LUS) and focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) as a clinical adjunct has played a significant role in triaging, diagnosis and medical management of COVID-19 patients. The expert panel from 27 countries and 6 continents with considerable experience of direct application of PoCUS on COVID-19 patients presents evidence-based consensus using GRADE methodology for the quality of evidence and an expedited, modified-Delphi process for the strength of expert consensus. The use of ultrasound is suggested in many clinical situations related to respiratory, cardiovascular and thromboembolic aspects of COVID-19, comparing well with other imaging modalities. The limitations due to insufficient data are highlighted as opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Consensus , Echocardiography/standards , Expert Testimony/standards , Internationality , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Expert Testimony/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Triage/methods , Triage/standards , Ultrasonography/standards
17.
Pulm Circ ; 10(4): 2045894020973906, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978887

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with Coronavirus disease 19 is associated with an unusually high incidence of pulmonary embolism and microthrombotic disease, with evidence for reduced fibrinolysis. We describe seven patients requiring invasive ventilation for COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome with pulmonary thromboembolic disease, pulmonary hypertension ± severe right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, who were treated with alteplase as fibrinolytic therapy. All patients were non-smokers, six (86%) were male and median age was 56.7 (50-64) years. They had failed approaches including therapeutic anticoagulation, prone ventilation (n = 4), inhaled nitric oxide (n = 5) and nebulised epoprostenol (n = 2). The median duration of mechanical ventilation prior to thrombolysis was seven (5-11) days. Systemic alteplase was administered to six patients (50 mg or 90 mg bolus over 120 min) at 16 (10-22) days after symptom onset. All received therapeutic heparin pre- and post-thrombolysis, without intracranial haemorrhage or other major bleeding. Alteplase improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio (from 97.0 (86.3-118.6) to 135.6 (100.7-171.4), p = 0.03) and ventilatory ratio (from 2.76 (2.09-3.49) to 2.36 (1.82-3.05), p = 0.011) at 24 h. Echocardiographic parameters at two (1-3) days (n = 6) showed right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 63 (50.3-75) then 57 (49-66) mmHg post-thrombolysis (p = 0.26), tricuspid annular planar systolic excursion (TAPSE) was unchanged (from 18.3 (11.9-24.5) to 20.5 (15.4-24.2) mm, p = 0.56) and right ventricular fractional area change (from 15.4 (11.1-35.6) to 31.2 (16.4-33.1)%, p = 0.09). At seven (1-13) days after thrombolysis, using dual energy computed tomography imaging (n = 3), average relative peripheral lung enhancement increased from 12.6 to 21.6% (p = 0.06). In conclusion, thrombolysis improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio and ventilatory ratio at 24 h as rescue therapy in patients with right ventricular dysfunction due to COVID-19-associated ARDS despite maximum therapy, as part of a multimodal approach, and warrants further study.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 327: 251-258, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938965

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Comprehensive echocardiography assessment of right ventricular (RV) impairment has not been reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We detail the specific phenotype and clinical associations of RV impairment in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) measures of RV function were collected in critically unwell patients for associations with clinical, ventilatory and laboratory data. RESULTS: Ninety patients (25.6% female), mean age 52.0 ± 10.8 years, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VVECMO) (42.2%) were studied. A significantly higher proportion of patients were identified as having RV dysfunction by RV fractional area change (FAC) (72.0%,95% confidence interval (CI) 61.0-81.0) and RV velocity time integral (VTI) (86.4%, 95 CI 77.3-93.2) than by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (23.8%, 95 CI 16.0-33.9), RVS' (11.9%, 95% CI 6.6-20.5) or RV free wall strain (FWS) (35.3%, 95% CI 23.6-49.0). RV VTI correlated strongly with RV FAC (p ≤ 0.01). Multivariate regression demonstrated independent associations of RV FAC with NTpro-BNP and PVR. RV-PA coupling correlated with PVR (univariate p < 0.01), as well as RVEDAi (p < 0.01), and RVESAi (p < 0.01), and was associated with P/F ratio (p 0.026), PEEP (p 0.025), and ALT (p 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 ARDS is associated with a specific phenotype of RV radial impairment with sparing of longitudinal function. Clinicians should avoid interpretation of RV health purely on long-axis parameters in these patients. RV-PA coupling potentially provides important additional information above standard measures of RV performance in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging
19.
Acta Cardiol ; 76(2): 109-124, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933774

ABSTRACT

This clinical review paper discusses the pathophysiology of the pulmonary and cardiovascular manifestations of a SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ensuing implications on acute cardiovascular care in patients presenting with a severe COVID-19 syndrome admitted to an intensive acute cardiac care unit. The high prevalence of old age, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease in patients who develop a severe to critical COVID-19 syndrome suggests shared pathophysiological mechanisms. Pre-existing endothelial dysfunction and an impaired innate immune response promote the development by the viral infection of an acute endothelialitis in the pulmonary microcirculation complicated by abnormal vasoconstrictor responses, luminal plugging by inflammatory cells, and intravascular thrombosis. This endothelialitis extends into the systemic circulation what may lead to acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, and thromboembolic complications both in the arterial and venous circulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence
20.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(3): 259-262, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927094

ABSTRACT

On April 17, 2020, a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) webinar was held by selected international experts in the field of intensive care and specialized respiratory ECMO centers from Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, which was hosted by the German Heart Centre Berlin/Charité. The experts shared their experience about the treatment of 42 patients with severe acute respiratory failure requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Patients were predominantly male (male-to-female ratio: 3:1), with a mean age of 51 years (range: 25-73 years). VV-ECMO support was indicated in 30% of the ventilated COVID-19 patients. The mean time requiring mechanical ventilation was 16.5 days, with a mean duration of ECMO support of 10.6 days. At the time of the webinar, a total of 17 patients had already been decannulated from ECMO, whereas six died with multiorgan failure. 18 patients remained on ECMO, with their final outcomes unknown at the time of the webinar. Hospital mortality was 25.6% (as of April 17, 2020). In this respect, VV-ECMO, provided by expert centers, is a recognized and validated mode of advanced life-support during the recent COVID-19 pandemic with good outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Decision-Making , Europe , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing
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