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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089018

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized through a Notch1-dependent mechanism. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variants impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant-negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL leading to Notch1 upregulation. Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in a mTORC1-dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(4): 796-805, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in a severe pneumonia associated with elevation of blood inflammatory parameters, reminiscent of cytokine storm syndrome. Steroidal anti-inflammatory therapies have shown efficacy in reducing mortality in critically ill patients; however, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers such an extensive inflammation remain unexplained. OBJECTIVES: To dissect the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we studied the role of IL-1ß, a pivotal cytokine driving inflammatory phenotypes, whose maturation and secretion are regulated by inflammasomes. METHODS: We analyzed nod-like receptor protein 3 pathway activation by means of confocal microscopy, plasma cytokine measurement, cytokine secretion following in vitro stimulation of blood circulating monocytes, and whole-blood RNA sequencing. The role of open reading frame 3a SARS-CoV-2 protein was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis following nucleofection of a monocytic cell line. RESULTS: We found that circulating monocytes from patients with COVID-19 display ASC (adaptor molecule apoptotic speck like protein-containing a CARD) specks that colocalize with nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and spontaneously secrete IL-1ß in vitro. This spontaneous activation reverts following patient's treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Transfection of a monocytic cell line with cDNA coding for the ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 protein resulted in ASC speck formation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence that IL-1ß targeting could represent an effective strategy in this disease and suggest a mechanistic explanation for the strong inflammatory manifestations associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , NLR Proteins , Receptors, Interleukin-1 , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332815

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized in association with increased Notch1 expression. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variant impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL . Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in an mTORC1 dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Res Sq ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786451

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized in association with increased Notch1 expression. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variant impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL . Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in an mTORC1 dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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