Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331848

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the most important means to overcome the SARS–CoV–2 pandemic. They induce specific antibody and T–cell responses but it remains open how well vaccine-induced immunity is preserved over time following homologous and heterologous immunization regimens. Here, we compared the dynamics of humoral and cellular immune responses up to 5 months after homologous or heterologous vaccination with either ChAdOx1–nCoV–19 (ChAd) or BNT162b2 (BNT) or both. Antibody responses significantly waned after vaccination, irrespective of the regimen. The capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV–2 – including variants of concern such as Delta or Omicron – was superior after heterologous compared to homologous BNT vaccination, both of which resulted in longer–lasting humoral immunity than homologous ChAd immunization. T–cell responses showed less waning irrespective of the vaccination regimen. These findings demonstrate that heterologous vaccination with ChAd and BNT is a potent approach to induce long–term humoral and cellular immune protection.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314315

ABSTRACT

Infection with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is controlled by the host´s immune response1-4, but longitudinal follow-up studies of virus-specific immunity to evaluate protection from re-infection are lacking. Here, we report the results from a prospective study that started during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, where we identified 91 convalescents from mild SARS-CoV-2 infection among 4554 health care workers. We followed the dynamics and magnitude of spike-specific immunity in convalescents during the spontaneous course over ≥ 9 months, after SARS-CoV-2 re-exposure and after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Virus-neutralizing antibodies and spike-specific T cell responses with predominance of IL-2-secreting polyfunctional CD4 T cells continuously declined over 9 months, but remained detectable at low levels. After a single vaccination, convalescents simultaneously mounted strong antibody and T cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. In naïve individuals, a prime vaccination induced preferentially IL-2-secreting CD4 T cells that preceded production of spike-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies after boost vaccination. Response to vaccination, however, was not homogenous. Compared to four individuals among 455 naïve vaccinees (0.9%), we identified 5/82 (6.1%) convalescents with a delayed response to vaccination. These convalescents had originally developed dysfunctional spike-specific immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and required prime and boost vaccination to develop strong spike-specific immunity. Importantly, during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in fall/winter of 2021 and prior to vaccination we detected a surge of virus-neutralizing antibodies consistent with re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in 6 out of 82 convalescents. The selective increase in virus-neutralizing antibodies occurred without systemic re-activation of spike-specific T cell immunity, whereas a single BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination sufficed to induce strong spike-specific antibody and systemic T cell responses in the same individuals. These results support the notion that BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination synchronizes spike-specific immunity in all convalescents of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and may provide additional protection from re-infection by inducing more rigorous stimulation of spike-specific T cell immunity than re-exposure with SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 496-503, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655606

ABSTRACT

Infection-neutralizing antibody responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination are an essential component of antiviral immunity. Antibody-mediated protection is challenged by the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) with immune escape properties, such as omicron (B.1.1.529), which is rapidly spreading worldwide. Here we report neutralizing antibody dynamics in a longitudinal cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent and infection-naive individuals vaccinated with mRNA BNT162b2 by quantifying SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies and determining their avidity and neutralization capacity in serum. Using live-virus neutralization assays, we show that a superior infection-neutralizing capacity against all VoCs, including omicron, developed after either two vaccinations in convalescents or a third vaccination or breakthrough infection of twice-vaccinated, naive individuals. These three consecutive spike antigen exposures resulted in an increasing neutralization capacity per anti-spike antibody unit and were paralleled by stepwise increases in antibody avidity. We conclude that an infection-plus-vaccination-induced hybrid immunity or a triple immunization can induce high-quality antibodies with superior neutralization capacity against VoCs, including omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 153, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616980

ABSTRACT

Anti-viral immunity continuously declines over time after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we characterize the dynamics of anti-viral immunity during long-term follow-up and after BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccination in convalescents after asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibody titers rapidly declined in convalescents over 9 months after infection, whereas virus-specific cytokine-producing polyfunctional T cells persisted, among which IL-2-producing T cells correlated with virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Among convalescents, 5% of individuals failed to mount long-lasting immunity after infection and showed a delayed response to vaccination compared to 1% of naïve vaccinees, but successfully responded to prime/boost vaccination. During the follow-up period, 8% of convalescents showed a selective increase in virus-neutralizing antibody titers without accompanying increased frequencies of circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. The same convalescents, however, responded to vaccination with simultaneous increase in antibody and T cell immunity revealing the strength of mRNA-vaccination to increase virus-specific immunity in convalescents.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods
6.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110214, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588141

ABSTRACT

T cell immunity is crucial for control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and has been studied widely on a quantitative level. However, the quality of responses, in particular of CD8+ T cells, has only been investigated marginally so far. Here, we isolate T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires specific for immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 epitopes restricted to common human Leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules in convalescent individuals. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are detected up to 12 months after infection. TCR repertoires are diverse, with heterogeneous functional avidity and cytotoxicity toward virus-infected cells, as demonstrated for TCR-engineered T cells. High TCR functionality correlates with gene signatures that, remarkably, could be retrieved for each epitope:HLA combination analyzed. Overall, our data demonstrate that polyclonal and highly functional CD8+ TCRs-classic features of protective immunity-are recruited upon mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing tools to assess the quality of and potentially restore functional CD8+ T cell immunity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Cells, Cultured , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL