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Eur J Intern Med ; 86: 41-47, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084315


BACKGROUND: The influence of aging and multimorbidity on Covid-19 clinical presentation is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the association between symptoms (or cluster of symptoms) and positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was different according to patients' age and presence of multimorbidity. METHODS: The study included 6680 participants in the EPICOVID19 web-based survey, who reported information about symptoms from February to June 2020 and who underwent at least one NPS. Symptom clusters were identified through hierarchical cluster analysis. The associations between symptoms (and clusters of symptoms) and positive NPS were investigated through multivariable binary logistic regression in the sample stratified by age (<65 vs ≥65 years) and number of chronic diseases (0 vs 1 vs ≥2). RESULTS: The direct association between taste/smell disorders and positive NPS was weaker in older and multimorbid patients than in their younger and healthier counterparts. Having reported no symptoms reduced the chance of positive NPS by 86% in younger (95%CI: 0.11-0.18), and by 46% in older participants (95%CI: 0.37-0.79). Of the four symptom clusters identified (asymptomatic, generic, flu-like, and combined generic and flu-like symptoms), those associated with a higher probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection were the flu-like for older people, and the combined generic and flu-like for the younger ones. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and pre-existing chronic diseases may influence the clinical presentation of Covid-19. Symptoms at disease onset tend to aggregate differently by age. New diagnostic algorithms considering age and chronic conditions may ease Covid-19 diagnosis and optimize health resources allocation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04471701 (

COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Internet , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727451


The present study aims to evaluate whether influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are associated with positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) testing to detect SARS-CoV-2. Data from the Italian cross-sectional web-based survey (EPICOVID19), based on a self-selection sample of individuals aged ≥18, were considered. The probability of a positive SARS-CoV-2 NPS test result as a function of influenza or anti-pneumococcal vaccination was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying analysis by age (<65 years, ≥65 years). From April 2020, 170,731 individuals aged <65 years and 28,097 ≥65 years filled out the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. Influenza and anti-pneumococcal vaccinations were received, respectively, by 16% and 2% of those <65 years, and by 53% and 13% of those ≥65 years. SARS-CoV-2 NPS testing was reported by 6680 participants. Anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations were associated with a decreased probability of a SARS-CoV-2 NPS positive test in the younger participants (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.91; OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.98; respectively). A significantly lower probability of a positive test result was detected in the individuals ≥65 years who received anti-pneumococcal vaccination (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.33-0.95). These results need to be confirmed by further investigations, but they are relevant given the probable coexistence of influenza, bacterial infections, and COVID-19 over the coming autumn-winter season.