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BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053122, 2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794501


INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where the greatest burden lies. Yet, there is little research concerning the specific issues involved in scaling up NCD interventions targeting low-resource settings. We propose to examine this gap in up to 27 collaborative projects, which were funded by the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) 2019 Scale Up Call, reflecting a total funding investment of approximately US$50 million. These projects represent diverse countries, contexts and adopt varied approaches and study designs to scale-up complex, evidence-based interventions to improve hypertension and diabetes outcomes. A systematic inquiry of these projects will provide necessary scientific insights into the enablers and challenges in the scale up of complex NCD interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply systems thinking (a holistic approach to analyse the inter-relationship between constituent parts of scaleup interventions and the context in which the interventions are implemented) and adopt a longitudinal mixed-methods study design to explore the planning and early implementation phases of scale up projects. Data will be gathered at three time periods, namely, at planning (TP), initiation of implementation (T0) and 1-year postinitiation (T1). We will extract project-related data from secondary documents at TP and conduct multistakeholder qualitative interviews to gather data at T0 and T1. We will undertake descriptive statistical analysis of TP data and analyse T0 and T1 data using inductive thematic coding. The data extraction tool and interview guides were developed based on a literature review of scale-up frameworks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC number 23482). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and more broadly through the GACD network.

Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Systems Analysis
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 22: 100420, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747700


Background: Pharmacists have been at the frontline of the COVID-19 response in Indonesia, providing medicines, advice, and referral services often in areas with limited healthcare access. This study aimed to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and practices during the pandemic, so that we can be better prepared for future emergencies. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in Indonesia was conducted between July and August 2020. The dataset was analysed descriptively, and logistic regression was used to explore willingness to participate in COVID-19 interventions. Findings: 4716 respondents participated in the survey. Two-thirds (66·7%) reported knowing only "a little" about COVID-19 and around a quarter (26·6%) said they had not received any COVID-19 guidelines. Almost all were concerned about being infected (97·2%) and regularly took steps to protect themselves and their clients (87·2%). Stock-outs of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and other products (32·3%) was the main reason for not taking any precautions. Around a third (37·7%) mentioned having dispensed antibiotics to clients suspected of having COVID-19. To support COVID-19 response efforts, most respondents were willing to provide verbal advice to clients (97·8%), distribute leaflets to clients (97·7%), and participate in surveillance activities (88·8%). Older respondents, those identifying as male, and those working in smaller outlets were more willing to provide information leaflets. Those working in smaller outlets were also more willing to engage in outbreak surveillance. Interpretation: Drug retail outlets continue to operate at the frontline of disease outbreaks and pandemics around the world. These providers have an important role to play by helping to reduce the burden on facilities and providing advice and treatment. To fulfil this role, drug retail outlets require regular access to accurate guidelines and steady supplies of PPE. Calls for drug retail outlet staff to plat in response efforts including the provision of information to clients and surveillance could ease escalating pressures on the health system during future outbreaks. Funding: This study was funded by a grant from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia, under the Stronger Health Systems for Health Security Scheme.

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat ; 37(1):21-26, 2021.
Article in English | Indonesian Research | ID: covidwho-1552342